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Biomarkers and Alzheimer's Science

Research Highlights

1. A biomarker is a substance or characteristic that can be objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of __________.

A. Normal body processes

B. Disease processes

C. The body’s response(s) to therapy

D. All of the above


2. Ronald Petersen, chair or the Association’s Medical and Scientific Advisory Council, is quoted as saying "With the continued aging of the population and the growing epidemic of Alzheimer’s, early detection of the disease is crucial for ____________."

A. risk assessment, testing new therapies and eventual early intervention with better drugs, once they are developed

B. finding a curefor Alzheimer's disease

C. risk assessment and helping people prepare for the onset of the disease


3. Age and family history are known to be the top risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease. Other factors recently discovered include:

A. Diet

B. Exercise

C. Lifestyle choices

D. All of the above

E. A and B above


Biomarkers

4. Two important biomarkers that have been identified by testing cerebrospinal fluid concentrations are:

A. beta-amyloid

B. tau

C. MCI

D. All of the above

E. A and B above


5. Research has found that high levels of beta amyloid in the brains of healthy individuals are associated with a greater risk for developing Alzheimer’s, loss of brain volume and declines in cognitive function.

A. True

B. False


Non-Biomarker Techniques for Early Detection

6. Based on data from 3,375 people aged 65 and older in a cardiovascular health study, researchers found which of the following people were more likely to develop dementia?

A. People who were underweight

B. People who did not drink alcohol

C. People who had undergone coronary bypass surgery

D. People who were slow at physical tasks such as buttoning a shirt

E. All of the above


7. Investigators following 444 individuals for an average of six years found those who developed Alzheimer’s experienced a decline in what skill three years before diagnosis?

A. Fine motor skills

B. Basic math skills

C. Visuospatial skills

D. All of the above


Modifiable Risk Factors

8. What categories of Alzheimer's disease risk factors can people change?

A. Genetic risk factors

B. Lifestyle risk factors

C. Environmental risk factors

D. All of the above

E. B and C


9. One lifestyle choice that has been shown to be especially effective in lowering one’s risk of developing Alzheimer’s is exercise combined with a healthy diet.

A. True

B. False


10. Breathing second-hand smoke has been shown to be a risk factor for Alzheimer's.

A. True

B. False


Genetic Risk Factors

11. Which of the following statements is true according to an Italian study on mutant gene A673V?

A. Cells with two copies of the mutant gene A673V produced more beta-amyloid, and the beta-amyloid was more likely to clump together.

B. Cells with one copy of the mutant gene A673V produced less beta-amyloid clumps than cells with no copies of A673V.

C. Both of the above


Drug Pipeline

12. According to the chief medical and scientific officer at the Alzheimer’s Association, treatments for Alzheimer’s must be given very early in the disease for them to be truly effective.

A. True

B. False


Care for People with Dementia

13. One study found that greater emotional closeness between Alzheimer's patients and their caregivers were associated with significantly slower cognitive and functional decline and that ___________________.

A. the effect was similar to that of using serotonin reuptake inhibitors

B. the effect was similar to that of oxytosin release in women after childbirth

C. the effect was similar to that of some of the cholinesterase inhibitors used to treat Alzheimer symptoms


Basic Science Discoveries

14. The APP fragment N-APP that plays a key role in killing extra nerve cells as the brain and spinal cord develop early in life may be turned on in Alzheimer’s, killing healthy brain cells.

A. True

B. False


15. In a 2009 study researchers at UCLA found that the large clusters of beta-amyloid called plaques are more toxic than the smaller clusters called oligomers or those in between.

A. True

B. False


Perspectives in Alzheimer's Science Timeline - March

16. People with Alzheimer’s disease tend to suffer faster than normal rates of cognitive decline if they also have diabetes or high levels of total cholesterol or bad (LDL) cholesterol.

A. True

B. False


Perspectives in Alzheimer's Science Timeline - April

17. In cell culture studies, researchers found that small beta-amyloid clumps increase levels of nitric oxide which, in turn, chemically alters a protein in mitochondria called _______, ultimately killing brain cells.

A. tau

B. APOE-e4

C. Drp1


Perspectives in Alzheimer's Science Timeline - June

18. Older adults using non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) with minimal cognitive problems showed that participants on heavy NSAID treatment were 66 percent more likely to develop Alzheimer’s than people taking little or no NSAIDs.

A. True

B. False


Perspectives in Alzheimer's Science Timeline - September

19. Targeting RanBP9 protein expression and/or the N60 fragment may lead to novel strategies to combat Alzheimer’s disease.

A. True

B. False


Perspectives in Alzheimer's Science Timeline - November

20. Removing beta-amyloid from the brain, which is the goal of many Alzheimer drugs being developed, can impair neuronal function.

A. True

B. False


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