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Violence Prevention, Factors Related to Violence and Treatment Programs

Introduction

1. Almost everywhere, youth homicide rates are substantially lower among females than among males, suggesting that being a male is a strong demographic risk factor.

A. True

B. False


2. The problem of firearm death is most serious among which of the following?

A. Black teenage males

B. Hispanic teenage males

C. Blacks of all ages

D. Whites of all ages


3. Adults are more likely to be exposed to violence and crime than are children.

A. True

B. False


4. Which of the following factors correlates with increased violence in countries around the world?

A. A negative association between gun violence and the share of workers in knowledge, professional, and creative class occupations.

B. An association with gun murder with perceptions of public institutions’ corruption.

C. A close association between the UN’s Gender Inequality Index and gun violence.

D. All of the above.


5. Protective factors, also referred to as buffering factors:

A. Are factors that act on their own to reduce the risk of being a victim of or perpetrating violence.

B. Are factors that act to lessen the effect of one or more particular risk factors.

C. Both (A) and (B).

D. None of the above.


6. Violence is predicted both by the presence of risk factors and also by the absence of protective factors.

A. True

B. False


7. Which of the following family risk factors are common across the developmental stages of childhood and increase the risk of violence?

A. Maltreatment

B. Insecure attachements

C. Unintended pregnancy

D. Economic Stress


8. Because there are so many common predictors of violence, it is impossible to concentrate prevention efforts on particular determinants.

A. True

B. False


Individual-Level Factors Related to Violence

9. There is ample scientific evidence that “mind” and “body” are inseparable, with most symptoms of illness or wellness clearly evident in physiological markers, as well as in subjective appraisals of well-being.

A. True

B. False


10. Wellness is the absence of illness.

A. True

B. False


11. Which of the following has been found to be predictive of suicide attempts among adults?

A. Depression

B. Anxiety

C. PTSD

D. All of the above


12. While mental illness confers only a small amount of additional risk for violence perpetration, research suggests that emotion dysregulation, especially _____, increases the risk of aggression.

A. Impulsivity

B. Anger

C. Mood swings

D. All of the above


13. Several therapeutic interventions that have been shown to reduce violence include cognitive behavioral therapy components.

A. True

B. False


14. Mental health conditions are associated with a large increase in the risk for violence perpetration.

A. True

B. False


15. Mental health conditions are associated with a substantial increase in the risk of being a victim of violence, including suicide.

A. True

B. False


16. Adequate sleep is associated with:

A. Improved cognitive functioning

B. Reduced risk of aggression

C. Reduced risk of violence

D. All of the above


17. The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health found that youth reporting less than _____ hours of sleep a night were more likely to engage in violent delinquent behavior, even after controlling for potentially confounding factors such as depression, impulsivity, parenting behaviors, and spending the night away from home without permission.

A. 8

B. 6

C. 4

D. 2


18. A cross-sectional study of elementary school students found that sleepiness was associated with all of the following, except for:

A. Conduct problems

B. Discipline referrals

C. Depression

D. Bullying


19. Studies focusing specifically on adolescents have linked sleep problems with:

A. Suicidal thoughts

B. Suicidal attempts

C. Suicidal completions

D. All of the above


20. Youth with inadequate sleep are more likely to act impulsively and misperceive risk.

A. True

B. False


21. The connection between the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex is less engaged among individuals who have been sleep-deprived, suggesting that lack of sleep can impair an individual’s ability to respond appropriately to distressing situations.

A. True

B. False


22. Inadequate sleep is associated with diminished problem-solving skills and impulse control, two things that increase the risk of violence.

A. True

B. False


23. Researchers found that adolescents who began drinking before age _____ were 18% more likely to bully others when compared to their non-drinking peers.

A. 13

B. 15

C. 17

D. 19


24. A study using ADD Health data to examine the association between adolescent drinking and violence involving a weapon or resulting in the victim needing medical care, found that binge drinking increases the risk of which of the following?

A. Violent perpetration among males and females.

B. Violent victimization among males and females.

C. Violent perpetration among males and violent victimization among females.

D. Violent victimization among males and violent perpetration among females.


25. Because problem drinking is a risk factor for violence, substance abuse treatment can be thought of as violence prevention.

A. True

B. False


26. The most effective outpatient interventions to treat alcohol abuse among adolescents include which of the following?

A. Family therapy

B. Group counseling

C. Incorporation of motivational interviewing techniques

D. All of the above


27. Self-regulation is found to be negatively linked to which of the following violent outcomes?

A. Crime

B. Substance abuse

C. Dating violence

D. All of the above


28. When do attributions become problematic?

A. When one’s interpretation of social cues defaults to the assumption that other individuals intend to cause them harm.

B. When one perceives a harmful experience as accidental or unintentional.

C. Both (A) and (B).

D. None of the above.


29. Social information processing difficulties are linked to later antisocial and externalizing behaviors.

A. True

B. False


30. All of the following risk factors for hostile attributions have emerged, except for:

A. Mistrust

B. Peer rejection

C. Substance abuse

D. Justification of aggressive behavior


31. Children who have difficulties understanding their own emotions and how others experience emotion tend to make hostile attributes and have a hard time understanding that others’ emotional reactions may differ from their own.

A. True

B. False


32. Central to hostile attributions is misperceived intent of others’ social cues, at the basis of which is:

A. Justification of violence

B. A mistrust of others

C. Narcissism

D. Peer rejection


33. Key factors in protecting against negative social information processing include:

A. Advanced theory of mind

B. Emotion understanding

C. Positive peer relationships

D. All of the above


Family-Level Factors Related to Violence

34. All of the following are major distinctions between adult and teen relationship violence, except for:

A. Differing power dynamics

B. Less relationship experience

C. Parental influence

D. Peer influence


35. Qualitative research has found that adolescent boys may be more likely to be violent in private than in front of friends.

A. True

B. False


36. Young men’s perpetration of TDV, compared to young women, is more strongly associated with all of the following, except:

A. High anger and hostility

B. Low socioeconomic status

C. Low educational attainment

D. Increased relationship length


37. Participation in which of the following is associated with an increased likelihood of perpetrating TDV among males?

A. Football

B. Wrestling

C. Tennis

D. Swimming


38. Adolescents involved in violent romantic relationships during adolescence are at increased risk of being involved in violent intimate partner relationships as adults.

A. True

B. False


39. Which of the following is often committed as a last resort for victims of IPV seeking to escape from their abusers?

A. Coercive Controlling Violence

B. Violent Resistance

C. Situational Couple Violence

D. Separation-Instigated Violence


40. Literature suggests that children’s exposure to which of the following is more likely to yield the most severe and extensive adjustment problems in children?

A. Coercive Controlling Violence

B. Violent Resistance

C. Situational Couple Violence

D. Separation-Instigated Violence


41. Meta-analysis of the literature on IPV find that factors for perpetration include:

A. Childhood physical and/or sexual abuse

B. Child as parental caretaker

C. Parent-child peer-like relationship

D. All of the above


42. If the parents’ behavior leads to anti-social behavior on the part of the child, it can increase IPV risk.

A. True

B. False


43. One of the strongest malleable risk factors for IPV is:

A. Social isolation

B. Pregnancy

C. Drug and alcohol use

D. Couple conflict


44. Boys and girls born to teen mothers are both at risk of which of the following?

A. Delinquency

B. Depression and anxiety

C. Early parenting

D. All of the above


45. All of the following are family process characteristics that are directly associated with the development of violent behaviors, except for:

A. Parent-child relationships

B. Single-parent households

C. Parenting practices

D. Parental mental health and drug use


46. Oppositional defiant disorder in the early childhood years may lead to antisocial behavior later in childhood.

A. True

B. False


47. Parenting that is which of the following during childhood is a strong predictor of adult criminality?

A. Coercive

B. Inconsistent

C. Lacking in supervision

D. Any of the above


48. Studies suggest that males who experience abuse and trauma are more vulnerable to developing violent behaviors compared with girls.

A. True

B. False


49. Which of the following is associated with children’s internalizing and externalizing behaviors and general psychopathology?

A. Parental alcohol use

B. Maternal depression

C. Paternal aggression

D. Parental neglect


50. Because research finds that children from homes experiencing family violence are likely to display externalizing behaviors, conduct and oppositional defiant disorder, and aggressive interactions with peers and that parenting practices can buffer the effects of family violence, the abusive parent can benefit from selective preventive parenting interventions.

A. True

B. False


School-Level Factors Related to Violence

51. Bullying is both a form of violence in and of itself, as well as a risk factor for other more-serious forms of violence.

A. True

B. False


52. Ample research demonstrates that bullying is linked to decreased academic achievement, depression and anxiety, and substance use as well as more violent outcomes of suicide, criminality, and violence towards others for which of the following?

A. Those bullied

B. Those bullied and those who witness bullying

C. Those bullied, those perpetrating bullying, and those who witness bullying

D. Those bullied and those perpetrating bullying


53. Although both boys and girls use social aggression, boys tend to utilize proportionally more social bullying than other forms.

A. True

B. False


54. National statistics indicate that _____ students are more likely to experience bullying victimization than all other groups.

A. White

B. Black

C. Hispanic

D. Asian


55. Which of the following is an individual risk factor for bullying perpetration?

A. Externalizing behaviors

B. Negative thoughts about others

C. Negative thoughts and beliefs about oneself

D. All of the above


56. Which of the following family characteristics is linked to increased bullying perpetration?

A. Lack of parental warmth

B. Weak emotional bond

C. Authoritarian parenting style

D. All of the above


57. Emerging research suggests that those who are not the most popular, but are on the verge of becoming so, are the most likely to engage in bullying behavior, suggesting that bullying may actually play a social function in their peer networks.

A. True

B. False


58. Friendships, and the quality thereof, influence antisocial and violent behavior.

A. True

B. False


59. Lack of close friendships and other relationships, particularly among girls, has been linked to violent behaviors, such as drug use, suicide, or violence towards others.

A. True

B. False


60. Homophily is related to:

A. Selection of similar peers.

B. The influence of group members on one another.

C. Both (A) and (B).

D. None of the above.


61. School connectedness is thought to foster positive outcomes and demote negative outcomes through:

A. Increased academic engagement.

B. Interaction with prosocial peers and adults.

C. Participation in school activities.

D. All of the above.


62. Those who completed high-school have lower rates of crime, arrests, and incarceration compared to high-school dropouts.

A. True

B. False


63. Which of the following components of school climate refers to indicators that bind the school community together, such as relationships among and between students, parents, and staff, respect for diversity, and participation in school activities?

A. Engagement

B. Safety

C. Environment

D. All of the above


64. Positive school climate, in and of itself, is a protective factor for various outcomes, including violent outcomes, but this relation is bidirectional such that various outcomes and behaviors also shape school climate.

A. True

B. False


Community and Societal-Level Factors Related to Violence

65. One neighborhood characteristic that may act as a protective factor against violence by residents and visitors, including police, even in disadvantaged neighborhoods, is:

A. Being non-deprived

B. Being nonviolent

C. Having collective efficacy

D. All of the above


66. The basis for neighborhood efficacy appears to be trust, shared values and expectations, along with networks and collective action.

A. True

B. False


67. High gun availability alone explains the high rate of gun related deaths in the U.S.

A. True

B. False


68. Research suggests that violent media has a universal impact, regardless of age, sex, and trait aggression, on violent behavior and violence-related outcomes.

A. True

B. False


Intervention Approaches by Sector

69. Not only can schools work toward improving issues related to violence from the school and classroom level, but given their regular interactions with children and their families, schools are in a unique position to address individual correlates of violence and engage caregivers.

A. True

B. False


70. Which of the following is an individual characteristic that the education sector can serve to address?

A. School performance

B. Bullying

C. Self-regulation

D. All of the above


71. All of the following are key roles of the health sector, except for:

A. Prevent unintended pregnancy

B. Making insurance more widely available

C. Prevent and treat substance use / abuse

D. Identify parents who need assistance with childrearing


72. Which of the following explains how substance abuse has a generational effect on violence?

A. Youth alcohol consumption increases their own risk for violence.

B. The effect of prenatal exposure to alcohol on brain development.

C. Increased exposure to violence in the home or the effects.

D. All of the above.


73. In recent years, the health sector has been included in the prevention of child maltreatment.  This is promising because children are bound to have contact with health professionals at least once a year during a child wellness visit.

A. True

B. False


74. There is promising evidence to suggest that screening for child abuse among the children of adults who present in an Emergency Room with problems related to which of the following can be an effective way to identify children at risk for maltreatment?

A. Problems related to intimate partner violence

B. Suicide or serious mental illness

C. Substance abuse

D. Any of the above


75. The AAP recommends that pediatricians screen mothers for postpartum depression at all of the following, except:

A. Their baby’s one month visit.

B. Their baby’s two month visit.

C. Their baby’s three month visit.

D. Their baby’s four mont visit.


Discussion, Conclusions, and Suggestions for Research

76. Substantial research on child development has identified factors that will undermine child well-being, including:

A. Family poverty

B. Toxic levels of stress

C. Child abuse

D. All of the above


77. Despite the media emphasis on mental health issues as a major cause of violence, research indicates that mental health problems are only infrequently a cause of violence and are more often associated with an increased risk of victimization.

A. True

B. False


78. Parent mental health can represent a risk factor for children if parents are unable to build positive relationships and provide consistent positive parenting.

A. True

B. False


79. Unplanned childbearing is a predictor of delinquency, crime, and gang violence.

A. True

B. False


80. A lack of self-regulation can result in bullying and being a bully can mean that a child isn’t accepted by prosocial peers, so they fall in with antisocial peers such that self-regulation is further undermined.

A. True

B. False


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