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Vietnam Veterans and PTSD

1. All of the following factors predicted a more chronic course for PTSD symptoms, except for:

A. Perceived negative community attitudes at homecoming

B. Anxiety disorders

C. More anger at baseline

D. Depression


2. Theater Veterans who served in Vietnam were:

A. More than two times more likely to have received treatment for PTSD than those who served elsewhere.

B. More likely, but not significantly, to have been treated for other mental health conditions and to have had psychiatric treatment.

C. Substantially worse on several general measures of mental health well-being.

D. More likely to have notably poorer mental health, especially among Veterans older than 60 years.


3. Current major depression was overrepresented among theater Veterans with clinically significant PTSD symptoms, occurring in more than 30% of those with subthreshold or current war zone PTSD compared to less than 1% among those without PTSD.

A. True

B. False


4. Among Vietnam Veteran women:

A. Nurses who served in Vietnam had elevated risk of pancreatic and brain cancer compared to non-deployed nurses.

B. The risk of death from heart disease was higher among the deployed cohorts.

C. Women who served in Vietnam had lower rates of death due to motor vehicle accidents compared to non-deployed Veterans and the US population.

D. Vietnam-era Veteran women had higher mortality than the general population of women from several specific causes, as well as from all causes combined.


5. PTSD at the first assessment was associated with greater likelihood of developing all of the following, except:

A. Depression

B. Anxiety disorders

C. Alcohol dependence

D. Sleep disorders


6. All of the following were associated with greater morality risk among those in the Australian Vietnam Veterans Health Study, except for:

A. Not living with a wife / partner

B. Psychiatric conditions

C. Chronic diabetes

D. Recent treatment for cancer and heart disease


7. Agent Orange exposure increased the prevalence of endocrine disorders, especially in the thyroid and pituitary gland; various neurologic diseases; Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease; and liver cirrhosis, as well as increasing the risk of cancers in all sites combined, and several specific cancers.

A. True

B. False


8. Veterans who served in Vietnam had notably poorer mental health than did those who served elsewhere, with older Veterans having substantially worse measures of mental health than younger Veterans.

A. True

B. False


9. Which of the following odds ratio is highest among Vietnam Veterans who sprayed herbicides?

A. Diabetes

B. Heart disease

C. Hypertension

D. Chronic respiratory condition


10. Nurses in the Vietnam cohort had an almost 5-fold higher risk of _____ death compared with nurses in the US cohort.

A. Brain cancer

B. Pancreatic cancer

C. Heart disease

D. COPD


11. Which of the following predicted PTSD course more strongly than any other risk factor?

A. Minority race

B. Depression symptoms at Time 1

C. Combat exposure

D. Anger at Time 1


12. Which of the following conditions has the highest odds ratio for those Veterans who were exposed to Agent Orange?

A. Hypothyroidism

B. Autoimmune thyroiditis

C. Diabetes mellitus

D. Amyloidosis


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