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Tribal Healing to Wellness Courts - Key Components

Introduction

1. Each of the following relates to the Tribal Healing to Wellness Court / drug court model, except for:

A. It is a tribal criminal or family court that orders individuals to treatment.

B. It is an innovative and collaborative legal process that adapts the drug court concept and its key components to meet tribal criminal, juvenile, and child welfare needs.

C. It is likely to require tribal institutional and legal reforms and further development of tribal alcohol and drug treatment services.

D. It promotes a higher level of accountability for alcohol- and drug-abusing individuals and their families through a system of judicially supervised, team-coordinated treatment services.


2. The office of Justice Programs places strong emphasis on the use of data and evidence in policy making and program development in criminal justice and is committed to which of the following?

A. Improving the quantity and quality of evidence OJP generates.

B. Integrating evidence into program, practice, and policy decisions within OJP and the field.

C. Improving the translation of evidence into practice.

D. All of the above.


Key Component #1: Individual and Community Healing Focus

3. For tribal government and community leaders, there is an important interconnection among internal nation-building activities, the physical and spiritual well-being of their people, and the future of the tribal government and its citizens as a people.

A. True

B. False


4. Researchers have identified alcohol- and drug-related crimes as the greatest law and order problem in Indian country.

A. True

B. False


5. The specific objectives of Tribal Healing to Wellness Court is to reduce all of the following, except:

A. The use and abuse of alcohol and other drugs.

B. The criminal activity related to the use and abuse of alcohol and other drugs.

C. Gun violence among those in the tribal community.

D. Civil child neglect and child abuse in the tribal community.


6. The tribal justice system has the unique ability to motivate a person to get treatment shortly after a significant triggering event, such as an arrest or the removal of a child.  With the necessary resources and appropriate training, treatment providers can then do which of the following?

A. Assess treatment needs.

B. Design individually tailored treatment plans.

C. Provide services or refer the individual to external or private service providers.

D. All of the above.


7. In order to accommodate large staff turnover, a strong structure of the Tribal Wellness Court should be developed by building the Tribal Wellness Court team based on the individuals, and not on roles, in order to avoid the disintegration of the team.

A. True

B. False


8. In order to ensure mutual respect, prompt and consistent meeting of program and individual responsibilities, and community recognition of the professional integrity of the Tribal Wellness Court and team members, methods of shared decision making, and conflict resolution within the team should be established.

A. True

B. False


Key Component #2: Referral Points and Legal Process

9. Each of the following are drafting and implementing jurisdictional code provision and intergovernmental agreements for the Tribal Healing to Wellness Court, except for:

A. Interagency agreements

B. Codes and court rules

C. Participant handbooks

D. Confidentiality forms


10. Even when tribes possess criminal jurisdiction, tribes are limited in its use, making it difficult to entice participation when a jail sentence may be shorter.

A. True

B. False


11. Under the Violence Against Women Reauthorization Act of 2013, tribes can exercise their inherent authority to investigate, prosecute, convict, and sentence both Indians and non-Indians for all of the following crimes in Indian country, except for:

A. Stalking

B. Domestic violence

C. Dating violence

D. Criminal violations of protection orders


12. If a tribe chooses to exercise VAWA’s special domestic violence criminal jurisdiction, the tribal court must do which of the following?

A. Ensure the defendant’s rights are protected under the Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968.

B. Provide all the rights described in TLOA enhanced sentencing.

C. Provide the right to a trial by an impartial jury drawn from sources that reflect a fair cross section of the community and not systematically exclude any distinctive group in the community, including non-Indians.

D. All of the above.


13. Participants that come into the Tribal Healing to Wellness Court that have already been found guilty of an offense by the judge or jury during a bench trial or jury trial, enter through which process?

A. Pre-charge

B. Post-plea

C. Post-conviction

D. All of the above


14. Juvenile participants that come into Tribal Healing to Wellness Court “post-admission”:

A. Are most likely referred by a tribal attorney general, prosecutor, or presenting officer.

B. Are already implicated in the tribe’s juvenile court process.

C. Have likely had a bench trial in which the judge found them responsible for the juvenile offense.

D. None of the above.


15. If the parallel judicial model works, there would be no referral or court-ordered transfer of a case from tribal court to Tribal Healing to Wellness Court, but rather a tribal court dependency judge would continue on as the dependency judge and as the Tribal Healing to Wellness Court judge with Tribal Family Healing to Wellness Court participants.

A. True

B. False


16. To ensure the due process rights are protected with potential participants, an informed consent approach should be used.  This approach clearly communicates each of the following to the offender, except for:

A. The benefits of the Tribal Wellness Court.

B. The time commitment required by the Tribal Wellness Court.

C. The risks of the Tribal Wellness Court.

D. The alternatives to the Tribal Wellness Court.


17. Before deciding on acceptance of an individual as a participant, the Tribal Wellness Court team should properly review which of the following in the participant’s case file?

A. Transfer orders

B. Arrest warrants

C. Affidavits

D. All of the above


18. The designated legal officer or team member should inform the individual that a positive alcohol or other drug test or open court admission of alcohol or other drug possession or use will result in a referral for or the filing of additional drug charges based on that admission.

A. True

B. False


19. Targeting offenders who are subject to or may be eligible for legal sanctions may provide greater leverage in program compliance.

A. True

B. False


Key Component #3: Screening and Eligibility

20. In the criminal and juvenile delinquency contexts, which of the following provides a window of opportunity for intervening and emphasizing the value of alcohol and drug abuse treatment?

A. The period immediately following an arrest or detention for an alleged criminal or juvenile offense.

B. The period immediately following a plea agreement for an offense.

C. The period immediately following a conviction for an offense.

D. All of the above.


21. Determining suitability for participation in Tribal Healing to Wellness Court begins with a clinical screening for each of the following before the participant enters the program, except for:

A. The presence of a substance abuse.

B. The type of substance being abused.

C. The length of time the substance has been abused.

D. The severity of the substance abuse.


22. In addition to screening for alcohol and drug abuse, treatment professionals recommend which of the following intake processes?

A. Assess the person’s readiness for change and apply appropriate strategies to motivate the client to enter and participate in treatment.

B. Establish a collaborative relationship between intake personnel and the person being screened.

C. Identify and overcome barriers that discourage the person from engaging in treatment.

D. All of the above.


23. Which of the following instruments have been shown to have high rates of accuracy, positive predictive value and sensitivity, and the capacity to distinguish between substance abuse and dependence disorders?

A. The Center for Substance Abuse Treatment’s Simple Screening Instrument.

B. A combination of the Alcohol Dependence Scale and the Addiction Severity Index Drug Use Subscale.

C. Texas Christian University Drug Screen.

D. All of the above.


24. Clinical assessment is a process for defining the nature of a problem and for developing specific treatment recommendations for addressing the problem.

A. True

B. False


25. Which of the following is the most commonly used substance abuse assessment instrument in justice systems for screening, assessment, and treatment planning?

A. Assessments for Readiness to Change

B. Addiction Severity Index

C. Assessments for Adolescents and Substance Abuse

D. Assessments for Persons with Co-Occurring Disorders


26. The clinical assessment can be performed by which of the following?

A. Psychologist

B. Police

C. Case manager

D. All of the above


27. There should be a clear termination policy in order to weed out participants who are not working the program after a reasonable time if an inclusive admittance policy is used.

A. True

B. False


28. A certified drug and alcohol counselor should undertake the clinical screening and the assessment.

A. True

B. False


29. An initial appearance before the Tribal Wellness Court judge should be scheduled immediately after an individual is found to be eligible for, and is enrolled in, the Tribal Wellness Court program.

A. True

B. False


Key Component #4: Treatment and Rehabilitation

30. Although many people experiment with alcohol and drugs with few to no consequences, those who become addicted have repeated the behavior so often that it becomes unconscious habit.  The behavior is ingrained, an the individual performs it almost automatically.

A. True

B. False


31. It is not unusual during the first _______ of treatment for the individual to have serious errors in judgement, emotional instability, and poor attention spans - which can make it very hard to engage them in treatment and requires early phases of treatment to focus on keeping these individuals safe and stable until their brain’s cognitive functions being to recover.

A. 2 weeks

B. 6 weeks

C. 3 months

D. 6 months


32. Addiction treatment focuses on all of the following, except:

A. Relationship skills

B. Motivation

C. Insight

D. Behavioral skills


33. When the participant graduates from the program, the team should formally recognize that graduation with:

A. A presentation of a certificate.

B. A ceremony in the courtroom.

C. An explicit acknowledgment from the bench.

D. All of the above.


34. A participant’s individualized treatment plan should take into account:

A. His or her clinical needs.

B. Any issues that are likely to impede his or her progress in treatment.

C. His or her personal strengths and resources.

D. All of the above.


35. Many Tribal Healing to Wellness Courts include participants that have some form of fetal alcohol syndrome or fetal alcohol effect, disorders that are often mistaken for laziness or uncooperativeness.

A. True

B. False


36. If a Tribal Healing Wellness Court’s treatment resources include evidence-based treatment programs and traditional / custom-based community practices, it may be useful for the team to discuss:

A. The potential benefits or harms of substitution of one for the other or using them simultaneously in the participant’s treatment plan.

B. Religious worldview differences and respect issues.

C. The placement of the treatment method in the appropriate program phase.

D. All of the above.


37. Which of the following is one of the general treatment goals?

A. To achieve abstinence.

B. To assist participants in developing a positive support network.

C. To improve participants’ problem-solving skills and coping strategies.

D. All of the above.


38. The recommended amount of intensive outpatient treatment contact hours per week per participant is:

A. 6 - 10 hours per week for a minimum of 90 days followed by continuing care.

B. 6 - 30 hours per week for a minimum of 45 days followed by continuing care.

C. 6 - 30 hours per week for a minimum of 90 days followed by continuing care.

D. 6 - 10 hours per week for a minimum of 45 days followed by continuing care.


39. Which of the following consists of individual and group sessions teaching participants skills to help them recognize and reduce relapse risks, maintain abstinence, and enhance self-efficacy?

A. Motivational Interviewing and Motivational Enhancement Therapy

B. Cognitive Behavioral Interventions

C. Relapse Prevention Therapy

D. Family-based Interventions


40. Cultural and religious traditions should be integrated into treatment, and participants should be required to participate in the activities that the cultural and religious traditions are built around.

A. True

B. False


41. Once a participant agrees to be placed in a Tribal Wellness Court, the Tribal Wellness Court team should require the participant to be immediately and actively involved in:

A. Treatment screening

B. Treatment assessment

C. Treatment services

D. All of the above


Key Component #5: Intensive Supervision

42. Case management ensures each of the following, except:

A. Clients are linked to relevant and effective services.

B. All service efforts are monitored, connected, and in synchrony.

C. Treatment plans are tailored to the individual participant’s needs.

D. Pertinent information gathered during assessment and monitoring is provided to the entire drug court team in real time.


43. The clinical / rehabilitation treatment model is an intensive case-management model that stresses frequent, community-based contact with participants using a multidisciplinary team approach.

A. True

B. False


44. Which of the following is a responsibility of the case manager?

A. The case manager supports due process, ethical and strengths-based treatment, and confidentiality while promoting individual accountability and community safety.

B. The case manager identifies and monitors each participant’s unique needs for support and rehabilitation services, coordinates participant access to these activities, and ensures linkage and coordination among the drug court service providers.

C. The case manager tracks and monitors the court’s allocation of sanctions and incentives to each participant in order to help ensure that subsequent sanctions, incentives, and interventions are graduated, treatment-relevant, strengths-based, and otherwise consistent with the program’s philosophy.

D. All of the above.


45. During the first weeks of treatment, treatment professionals recommend that alcohol and drug testing be done _____ a week.

A. Once

B. Twice

C. Three times

D. Four times


46. The scope of testing should be sufficiently broad in order to detect the participant’s primary drug of choice as well as other potential drugs.

A. True

B. False


Key Component #6: Incentives and Sanctions

47. The point of motivational incentive programs is to bring the benefits of abstinence forward in time by providing tangible and immediate rewards.

A. True

B. False


48. Generally speaking, rewarding desired behavior is not as effective or efficient as punishing undesired behavior for improving client outcomes.

A. True

B. False


49. Sanctions tend to be most effective:

A. At the lowest magnitude.

B. Within a moderate range of magnitude.

C. At the highest magnitude.

D. Sanctions are not effective.


Key Component #8: Monitoring and Evaluation

50. Drug court performance measurement is the establishment of research-based indicators that measure drug court program activity in order to determine causes.

A. True

B. False


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