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Treatment for Cutting and Other Nonsuicidal Self-Injury Behaviors

What Is Nonsuicidal Self-Injury?

1. Anorexia, or purposeful starvation, is a form of self-injury that can accompany other forms or act as a gateway to further self-abuse.

A. True

B. False

2. The methods of self-injury that are thought to be engaged in by 70 - 90% of persons who self-injure are all of the following, except:

A. Skin cutting

B. Skin burning

C. Skin scraping

D. Skin carving

3. Body areas that are rarely harmed and are particularly alarming are which of the following?

A. Face

B. Eyes

C. Genitals

D. All of the above

Who Self-Injures?

4. The strategies preferred by males can more easily be explained away as outward-focused aggressing which may mask self-injurious intent and support the common misperceptions that self-injury primarily affects females.

A. True

B. False

5. Which of the following demographic variables is significantly linked to NSSI?

A. Gender

B. Socioeconomic status

C. Sexual orientation

D. Education level

6. All individuals who engage in NSSI meet criteria for a mental disorder.

A. True

B. False

7. Clients who have which of the following disorders are at an increased risk for NSSI?

A. Anxiety and/or depression

B. An eating disorder

C. Substance abuse

D. All of the above

Self-Injury In The Prison Population

8. All of the following are important and independent predictors of self-injury in jail, except for:

A. Sexual orientation

B. Length of stay in jail

C. Solitary confinement

D. Young age

Where Do Those That Self-Injure Get Their Information?

9. Which of the following information sources are young people most comfortable obtaining information from?

A. Google

B. Friends

C. Parents

D. Social media sites

How Is Self-Injury Linked To Suicide?

10. Suicide and suicide attempts represent a small share of all acts of self-injury.

A. True

B. False

11. Individuals who have ceased practicing self-injury are no longer at a heightened risk for suicidality later in life compared to those that never self-injured.

A. True

B. False

What Are The Reasons For Self-Injury?

12. There is considerable evidence that most people self-injure as a behavior for seeking attention.

A. True

B. False

13. As varied and different as people living with self-injury are, there is always one constant factor in their lives: having a history of some form of trauma in their pasts, often in their childhoods.

A. True

B. False

14. From a functional perspective, tension relief and/or a decrease in feelings of anger are examples of which reinforcement process?

A. Interpersonal negative reinforcement

B. Interpersonal positive reinforcement

C. Intrapersonal negative reinforcement

D. Intrapersonal positive reinforcement

15. Self-criticism has been shown to moderate the association between parental criticism and self-injury, such that the association between parental criticism and self-injury is especially strong among those with a self-critical cognitive style.

A. True

B. False

16. Which of the following individual variables is associated with self-injury?

A. General perfectionism

B. Trauma history

C. Emotional regulation

D. All of the above

Assessment And Treatment For Self-Injury

17. Self-injury can be very contagious.

A. True

B. False

18. The health care professional should avoid displaying extreme reactions such as shock, pity, or criticism to the client’s self-injury, and instead show effusive expressions of support.

A. True

B. False

19. The advantages of a client using diary cards include all of the following, except:

A. Focusing the client’s attention on a particular instance of NSSI.

B. Allowing the client to stop and think why they are self-injuring, often preventing them from completing the act.

C. Requiring minimal retrospective recall.

D. Focusing the client’s attention on current NSSI.

20. Clinicians working with self-injurers need to monitor in an ongoing way whether their self-injuring clients are also experiencing suicidal ideation, planning, and behavior.  In such cases, the priority is always to respond to the suicidal crisis first.

A. True

B. False

21. One study found that clients ranked all of the following as the most helpful strategies in treatment, except:

A. Open discussions

B. Skills building

C. A long-term working relationship with a provider

D. Access to caring individuals

22. Interventions that seek to eliminate self-injury at all costs may actually increase the risk of successful suicide by removing an effective coping strategy that acts as an alternative to ending one’s life.

A. True

B. False

23. In general, psychotherapies appear to be most effective in treating self-injury when they emphasize all of the following, except:

A. Emotion regulation

B. Functional Assessment

C. Relaxation training

D. Problem solving

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