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Trauma Awareness

1. Many people will be exposed to traumatic experiences throughout their lifetimes, but such experiences typically do not result in long-term impairment for most individuals.

A. True

B. False


2. How survivors of natural trauma respond to the experience often depends on each of the following EXCEPT:

A. The degree of devastation

B. The extent of individual and community losses

C. Previous experience with exposure and recovery from traumatic events

D. The amount of time it takes to reestablish daily routines, activities, and services


Advice to Counselors: Working With Clients Who Have Experienced Individual Traumas

3. In working with clients who have histories of individual trauma, counselors should consider that sympathy tends to be more potent than empathy, as expressing sorrow will likely help the survivor feel understood.

A. True

B. False


Group Trauma

4. Survivors of group trauma are the most likely to share their trauma experiences with others, probably because they are able to seek help together, and they feel more comfortable supporting each other through the process.

A. True

B. False


Trauma Affecting Communities and Cultures

5. Cultural traumas are events that, whether intentionally or not, erode the heritage of a culture, as with prejudice, disenfranchisement, and health inequities.

A. True

B. False


Historical Trauma

6. Historical trauma, known also as ______________ trauma, refers to events that are so widespread as to affect an entire culture, and that also have effects intense enough to influence the culture beyond those who experienced them directly.

A. Progressive

B. Chronological

C. Sequential

D. Generational


Interpersonal Traumas

7. Trauma associated with intimate partner violence (IPV) differs from simple assault in that multiple episodes often occur and the perpetrator is an intimate partner of the victim, and the client may still be encountering abuse from the perpetrator while engaged in treatment.

A. True

B. False


Developmental Traumas

8. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with a greater risk of adult alcohol use, and childhood abuse is highly associated with major depression, suicidal thoughts, PTSD, and:

A. Dissociative symptom

B. Generalized anxiety

C. Learning difficulties

D. Eating disorders


Torture and Captivity

9. Torture traumatizes by taking away an individual’s personhood, and to survive, victims have to give up their sense of self and will and often seek to hide their trauma and significant parts of their selfhood long after torture has ended and freedom has been obtained.

A. True

B. False


Characteristics of Trauma-Objective Characteristics

10. A particularly severe pattern of ongoing trauma occurs when multiple traumas happen in a pattern that does not allow an individual to heal from one traumatic event before another occurs, which is known as “evolving trauma”.

A. True

B. False


Was the Trauma Experienced Directly or Indirectly?

11. Which of the following is NOT likely one of the variables that will affect the impact of indirect trauma?

A. The proximity to the event as eyewitnesses

B. Whether the trauma was isolated or pervasive

C. The relationship to the victim

D. The degree of helplessness surrounding the experience


Individual and Sociocultural Features

12. People that appear to be the most susceptible to severe traumatic reactions are those with poor coping mechanisms and histories of chaotic relationships.

A. True

B. False


Sociodemographic Factors-Gender

13. In the United States, men are at greater risk than women for being exposed to stressful events, although lifetime PTSD occurs at about twice the rate among women as it does in men.

A. True

B. False


Age

14. Which of the following is an accurate statement about how age impacts trauma experiences and reactions?

A. As people age, there is a dramatic increase in the risk of experiencing trauma

B. Trauma that occurs in later years appears to have greater impact on people than that which occurs in the earlier or midlife years

C. Older adults are less likely than younger people to recover quickly from trauma, probably because of the greater vulnerabilities they experience as they age

D. For adults in midlife, trauma may have a greater impact due to the enhanced stress or burden of care that often characterizes this stage of life, such as having to care for their children and their parents at the same time


Resilience: Cultural, Racial, and Ethnic Characteristics

15. Characteristics that often nurture resilience among individuals from diverse cultural, racial, and ethnic groups include strong kinship bonds, respect for elders and the importance of extended family, spirituality and religious practices, value in friendships, and warm personal relationships.

A. True

B. False


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