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Synthetic Drug Assessment: Amphetamine and New Psychoactive Substances

Global Overview

1. The risk of ATS manufacture in several countries has been heightened by the extensive availability of ATS precursor chemicals.

A. True

B. False


2. A recent feature of global drug markets is the unprecedented pace at which _____ have been developed and at which these have emerged worldwide.

A. New psychoactive substances

B. Amphetamine-type stimulants

C. Precursor chemicals

D. All of the above


3. NPS is a phenomenon that is difficult to detect because NPS identification requires an advanced level of forensic laboratory capacity.

A. True

B. False


4. Synthetic cathinones, which can include _____, can evoke stimulant and empathogenic effects similar to ATS, including MDMA.

A. Mephedrone

B. Methylone

C. MDPV

D. All of the above


5. Side-effects of chronic ketamine use can include all of the following, except for:

A. Abdominal pain

B. Low blood pressure

C. Lower urinary tract symptoms

D. Disorientation


6. With the exception of alcohol, tobacco, and caffeine, Yemen has the highest lifetime prevalence rate recorded in any country in the world for which psychoactive substance?

A. Ecstasy

B. Khat

C. Ketamine

D. Methamphetamine


Africa

7. East Africa continues to report the largest number of dismantled ATS laboratories in Africa.

A. True

B. False


8. By far the largest number of NPS reports in Africa have been made by:

A. Zambia

B. Niger

C. Egypt

D. South Africa


9. Since khat can decompose quickly after 48 hours of harvesting, it is usually delivered to other countries and regions outside of Africa on a frequent and regular basis.

A. True

B. False


East and South-East Asia, Oceania and the Pacific

10. Seizures of which of the following have annually made up more than 90 percent of total ATS seizures for a number of years in East and South-East Asia, Oceania and the Pacific?

A. Amphetamine

B. Ecstasy

C. Methamphetamine

D. None of the above


11. Between 2011 and 2012, _____ users in Australia accounted for the second largest share of people receiving drug treatment.

A. Amphetamine

B. Ecstasy

C. Methamphetamine

D. None of the above


12. Reports of increasing “ecstasy” use in New Zealand may in fact point to a growing use of NPS.

A. True

B. False


13. Which country had the majority of dismantled methamphetamine laboratories between 2008 and 2011?

A. New Zealand

B. Australia

C. Thailand

D. Indonesia


14. Methamphetamine manufactured in _____ may be intended to supply the large domestic market.

A. New Zealand

B. Australia

C. Thailand

D. Indonesia


15. China has the highest licit requirements for _____, which may heighten the risk of diversion for ATS manufacture.

A. Pseudoephedrine

B. Ephedrine

C. Both (A) and (B)

D. None of the above


16. According to expert perception, Thailand is primarily a transit country for methamphetamine en route from the Islamic Republic of Iran to:

A. Japan

B. Malaysia

C. The Philippines

D. All of the above


17. According to expert perception, some methamphetamine originating in Myanmar is intended for trafficking to neighboring countries, but most is intended for the domestic market.

A. True

B. False


18. Countries in the Oceania region have reported some of the highest NPS prevalence rates in the world.

A. True

B. False


19. In Australia, ketamine had an annual prevalence rate in 2010 that was higher than which of the following?

A. Heroin

B. Methadone

C. GHB

D. All of the above


20. Most ketamine seized in countries world-wide is perceived to originate from:

A. China

B. India

C. Cambodia

D. All of the above


Europe

21. Which of the following continues to be the most commonly available synthetic stimulant in Europe?

A. Amphetamine

B. Methamphetamine

C. Ecstasy

D. None of the above


22. While the methamphetamine market appears to have picked up somewhat over the last several years, falling “ecstasy” seizures and drug law offenses related to “ecstasy” in Europe indicate a decline in the “ecstasy” market.

A. True

B. False


23. Europe’s dismantled ATS laboratories continue to be predominantly _____ laboratories.

A. Amphetamine

B. Methamphetamine

C. Ecstasy

D. None of the above


24. On the whole, the sheer number of discovered amphetamine laboratories in these countries is an indication of the quantity produced.

A. True

B. False


25. NPS by definition is not controlled at a global level.

A. True

B. False


26. The lifetime prevalence rates for “legal substances that imitate the effects of illicit drugs” in the EU, when adjusted to the age group 15 to 18, are larger than the corresponding rate for:

A. Cocaine

B. LSD

C. Heroin

D. All of the above


27. Although the use effects of the two drugs are similar, in that they produce mental and physical stimulation, amphetamines have more potent effects on the central nervous system than methamphetamine.

A. True

B. False


Middle East

28. In Saudi Arabia in 2012, ATS users accounted for the largest share of people treated for drug use at drug treatment centers.

A. True

B. False


29. In Israel, amphetamine seizures accounted for more than 80% of all ATS seizures since 2005.

A. True

B. False


North America

30. From 2007 to 2012, seizures of which of the following has increased?

A. Amphetamine

B. Ecstasy

C. Both (A) and (B)

D. None of the above


31. The results of the annual population survey among people aged 15 and above in 2012, identified methamphetamine in Canada as the second most used drug in terms of lifetime prevalence.

A. True

B. False


32. On the whole, prevalence data for countries in North America indicate a growing methamphetamine market, consistent with the rapid increase of methamphetamine seizures and dismantled laboratories reported in the region.

A. True

B. False


33. Over the years, _____ has by far reported the largest number of methamphetamine laboratories in the region with an almost 400% surge in laboratories reported between 2010 and 2012.

A. Canada

B. The United States

C. Mexico

D. There are equal numbers of methamphetamine laboratories in all of the above


34. According to the DEA, _____ between 2007 and 2012 points to a rising domestic availability of methamphetamine.

A. The drop in methamphetamine prices by more than 70%

B. The rise in methamphetamine purity by almost 130%

C. Increased methamphetamine trafficked from Mexico to the United States

D. All of the above


35. According to the Mexican authorities, methamphetamine is trafficked through Mexico to the United States:

A. Along land routes

B. By plane

C. Both (A) and (B)

D. None of the above


36. North America, predominantly the United States and Canada are among the largest and most diversified markets for NPS in the world.

A. True

B. False


37. Overall, structural similarity implies similar pharmacological effects.

A. True

B. False


South America, Central America, and the Caribbean

38. On the whole, the majority of “ecstasy” seizures in the region have been reported in _____, accounting for about 47% of the total ATS seized in South America, Central America, and the Caribbean between 2008 and 2012.

A. Colombia

B. Brazil

C. Argentina

D. Peru


39. Recently, law enforcement authorities in some countries in South America have reported that _____ is being sold as “LSD” on the illicit drug market.

A. Ketamine

B. Cannabis resin

C. NBOMe

D. All of the above


Western and Central Asia

40. The ATS market in Western and Central Asia predominantly consists of:

A. Methamphetamine

B. Amphetamin

C. Ecstasy

D. Non-specified ATS


Precursor Trends and Manufacturing Methods

41. The majority of the precursor chemicals that can be used in the illicit manufacture of ATS and synthetic drugs have widespread licit use in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries.

A. True

B. False


42. Which of the following is an attractive precursor as it is widely used in legitimate trade, and thus is more easily targeted for diversion.

A. Ephedrine

B. Pseudoephedrine

C. Both (A) and (B)

D. None of the above


43. The primary precursor chemical used in the manufacture of amphetamine and methamphetamine is:

A. Ephedrine

B. Pseudoephedrine

C. 1-phenyl-2-propanone

D. All of the above


44. Forensic profiling of seized methamphetamine in the United States confirmed that currently, nearly all of the analyzed methamphetamine is manufactured using all of the following, except for:

A. Ephedrine or Pseudoephedrine

B. Phenylacetic acid

C. P-2-P

D. All of the above are used equally


45. Examination of synthetic cannabinoids have revealed which approach is used to manufacture new compounds?

A. The replacement of a hydrogen in the terminal carbon of the alkyl chain with fluorine or chlorine.

B. The use of indazole instead of indole as a starting material.

C. The use of different linkages.

D. All of the above.


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