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A Novel Approach to Understanding Stress, Trauma, and Bodymind Therapies

History

1. It is suggested that the rapid, largely sub-cortical, preparation of the organism for response to the environment involves an organization of core features of the organism in readiness in:

A. Physical posture and muscle tone.

B. Affective or motivational state.

C. Arousal and orientation of attention.

D. All of the above.


2. The PS precedes, and influences, the complex human cortical responses of conscious appraisal and voluntary planning.

A. True

B. False


Preparation and Response

3. The initial orienting phase is unconscious, automatic, and controlled by the brain stem reticular formation, especially the caudal areas.  These rapid and automatic processes are the initiation of, and included in, the preparatory response.

A. True

B. False


The Five Elements of the PS

4. Disturbances at which phase of development may profoundly damage later affective and cognitive development?

A. Movement and the sense of movement.

B. Basis trust vs. mistrust.

C. Autonomy vs. shame and doubt.

D. All of the above.


5. Breathing has:

A. A mechanical aspect.

B. An autonomic and effective aspect.

C. Both (A) and (B).

D. None of the above.


6. Voluntary control of breathing has been demonstrated to alter autonomic and affective state.

A. True

B. False


7. Fully conscious experience of emotional body language is mediated by all of the following, except for:

A. Insula

B. Anterior cingulate

C. Amygdala

D. Ventromedial prefrontal cortex


8. A voluntarily expansive posture has been shown to induce a rise in:

A. Cortisol

B. Testosterone

C. Epinephrine

D. All of the above


9. The emotional motor system operates independently of the voluntary cortical control of movement, and is responsible for:

A. Muscle tone

B. Core body posture

C. Expressive gesture

D. All of the above


10. Significant to the PS concept is the fact that even imagined movement activates an autonomic response appropriate to the anticipated exertion.

A. True

B. False


11. In humans, severe damage to the insula, the visceral / affective cortex, eliminates emotional experience.

A. True

B. False


12. Which memory type can be brought into full consciousness, considered, and re-evaluated?

A. Explicit

B. Implicit

C. Both (A) and (B)

D. None of the above


13. All of the following describe cortical appraisal, except for:

A. It is easy to access consciously.

B. It is fairly easy to change.

C. It has a direct and immediate effect on emotion and autonomic state.

D. All of the above describe cortical appraisal.


Categories of PS

14. According to Porges’ polyvagal theory, the state of immobility without fear is:

A. Sympathetic activity

B. Dorsal vagal activity

C. Ventral vagal activity

D. All of the above


Stress and the PS

15. Which of the following ends the core stress response?

A. The ending of the maladaptive PS.

B. The correction of neuro-humoral imbalance.

C. The removal of the challenging situation.

D. All of the above.


16. If adequate ergotropic activity does not occur, the ANS may not return to balance and the PS generated in response to the threat may persist.

A. True

B. False


17. If the threat is _____, there may be an apparent “spillover” of activation from the ergotropic to the trophotropic systems, possibly due to spreading neural arousal from anterior to posterior hypothalamic nuclei.

A. Extreme

B. Inescapable

C. Very prolonged

D. All of the above


18. Under the PS perspective, adaptive PSs generally lead to greater resilience and maladaptive PSs generally lead to various harmful consequences.

A. True

B. False


19. The PS perspective suggests that traumatic stress involves:

A. An appropriate, time-limited PS appropriate to threat or challenge.

B. A disorganized PS characterized by regression to a phylogenetically more primitive form of PS.

C. A persistent maladaptive PS.

D. An adaptive response to prolonged challenge.


What are BTES and How Do They Relate to PS?

20. BTES use a disease framework in evaluation and treatment of disease.

A. True

B. False


21. BTES make a fundamental distinction between body and mind.

A. True

B. False


22. According to BTES, which of the following is suggested as the principal way PSs can be changed?

A. By becoming conscious of the process of maintaining the PS, voluntarily letting go of it, and replacing it by a more adaptive PS.

B. Through “biological completion,” in which the originally obstructed impulse is enabled, in a safe context, to complete itself.

C. Both (A) and (B) are principal ways PSs can be changed.

D. None of the above.


23. The BTES claims that once awareness has been achieved, it is possible to alter the PS through the use of which of the following voluntary procedures?

A. Proprioceptive or interoceptive imagery

B. Adopting a specific posture

C. Breathing in certain patterns

D. Any of the above


24. Clinical experience in SE shows that biological completion often involves autonomic discharge such as:

A. Crying

B. Trembling

C. Flushing

D. All of the above


Examples of BTES

25. In almost all traditional systems of meditation, _____ is stressed as an absolutely essential component.

A. Correct breathing

B. Correct posture

C. Physical sensation

D. All of the above


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