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Impacts of Sleep Loss and Stress

Synaptic Plasticity and Sleep

1. Which of the following refers to the ability of a neuron to modulate its firing rate by globally increasing or decreasing synaptic efficacy on all inputs to the dendrite?

A. Synaptic plasticity

B. Homeostatic scaling

C. Long-term potentiation

D. Long-term depression


2. Early long-term potentiation typically lasts 1 - 2 hours after LTP induction and depends on:

A. Post-translational modification and trafficking of pre-existing proteins.

B. New gene expression.

C. New protein synthesis.

D. All of the above.


3. Measurements of the population spike amplitude in the medial prefrontal cortex indicate increased neuronal excitability and a change in synaptic efficacy.

A. True

B. False


4. Which of the following specific functions for NREM and REM sleep in humans have been proposed?

A. NREM sleep mainly benefits the consolidation of procedural memories / skills.

B. REM sleep is implicated in consolidation of declarative and working memories.

C. Memory consolidation following tasks consisting of simple declarative material usually shows low susceptibility to REM sleep deprivation.

D. Consolidation following tasks of higher complexity, or tasks which integrate procedural or emotional components, are more vulnerable to NREM sleep deprivation.


5. Most of the genes increased during sleep are linked to macromolecular biosynthesis and transport, supporting a restorative function of sleep at the cellular level.

A. True

B. False


6. Cholinergic activity is high during REM sleep compared to NREM sleep.

A. True

B. False


7. Sleep deprivation for 8 and 48 hours decreases expression of several potential downstream gene targets of BDNF-TrkB signaling in the:

A. Hippocampus

B. Neocortex

C. Both (A) and (B)

D. None of the above


8. Independent validation confirmed increased expression of total and phosphorylated mTOR following sleep deprivation.

A. True

B. False


9. Sleep quality and quantity prior to sleep deprivation predicted the effects of sleep on translational factor activity in the:

A. Hippocampal region

B. Prefrontal cortex region

C. Both (A) and (B)

D. None of the above


10. Wakefulness is associated with a net decrease in dendritic spines while sleep is associated with net spine gain.

A. True

B. False


11. The evidence suggest that sleep-stage specific changes in _____ develop over the course of sleep.

A. Synaptic efficacy and plasticity

B. Firing activity

C. Network synchrony

D. All of the above


12. Restorative macromolecular synthesis of which of the following translational machinery occurs during sleep and may function to support bursts of synaptic protein synthesis?

A. Ribosomal proteins

B. Translation factors

C. tRNA

D. All of the above


13. Sleep restriction or sleep loss are often associated with a temporary increase in the activity of the neuroendocrine stress systems by altering the state or function of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis.

A. True

B. False


Impact of Stress on Sleep (and Synaptic Plasticity)

14. In humans, partial and total sleep loss:

A. Decreases cortisol levels and speeds the recovery of the cortisol release from the HPA axis.

B. Decreases cortisol levels and delays the recovery of the cortisol release from the HPA axis.

C. Increases cortisol levels and delays the recovery of the cortisol release from the HPA axis.

D. Increases cortisol levels and speeds the recovery of the cortisol release from the HPA axis.


15. Repeated exposure to stressors may constitute an environmental risk factor for the development of:

A. Anxiety

B. Depression

C. Both (A) and (B)

D. None of the above


16. Chronic stress does which of the following?

A. Strengthens associations between an individuals’ sleep quality / quantity and translational activity.

B. Abolishes associations between sleep parameters measured prior to 8 hours of sleep deprivation and cortical translational activity as assessed after sleep deprivation.

C. Both (A) and (B).

D. None of the above.


17. Acute sleep deprivation has been reported to have antidepressant effects in humans.

A. True

B. False


Clinical Perspectives and Closing Comments

18. Insufficient sleep may compromise neuronal function and contribute to neurodegenerative processes.

A. True

B. False


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