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Self-Regulation and Goal Attainment in Employment Programs

Executive Summary

1. Which of the following encompasses inhibitory control, working memory, and cognitive flexibility and has been likened to the “air traffic control of our brain” because it enables us to take in a vast amount of information and choices and process, filter, and act on that information?

A. Selective attention

B. Executive function

C. Metacognition

D. Emotional understanding


2. Even with optimal developmental experiences, aspects of the daily environment can influence adults’ self-regulation skills.

A. True

B. False


3. Programs may inadvertently harm self-efficacy by continually highlighting a person’s social identity as someone who needs assistance.

A. True

B. False


4. Which of the following counseling methods take a goal-oriented, client-centered approach intended to help clients overcome obstacles to achieve positive behavior change?

A. Cognitive behavioral therapy

B. Mental contrasting with implementation intentions

C. Attention bias modification

D. Motivational interviewing


5. Appropriate goals are often described as those that are all of the following, except for:

A. General

B. Measurable

C. Attainable

D. Realistic


Introduction

6. Research suggests that self-regulation skills are static.

A. True

B. False


7. Which of the following is considered a behavior that both requires and supports self-regulation?

A. Metacognition

B. Goal setting

C. Emotion understanding

D. Emotion regulation


8. There is growing consensus that self-regulation skills continue developing into adulthood, with especially rapid growth in:

A. College

B. Adolescence

C. Early childhood

D. Self-regulation skills develop equally in each stage of life


The Self-Regulation Skills That Support Goal Attainment

9. All of the following cognitive skills have been linked to our ability to set and pursue goals, except:

A. Executive function

B. Selective attention

C. Motivation

D. Metacognition


10. Which of the following helps us regulate and control our actions, particularly intentional action, goal setting, and goal pursuit?

A. Executive function

B. Selective attention

C. Motivation

D. Metacognition


11. Which of the following is used in planning and organizing our approach to a goal or to solving a problem?

A. Cognitive flexibility

B. Working memory

C. Inhibitory control

D. Grit


12. Which of the following is used while we are performing a related action?

A. Cognitive flexibility

B. Working memory

C. Inhibitory control

D. Grit


13. Which of the following guides attention and focus to the task by filtering out distracting or irrelevant information?

A. Cognitive flexibility

B. Working memory

C. Inhibitory control

D. Grit


14. All of the following describe cognitive flexibility, except for:

A. It is our ability to hold more than one idea at a time and to switch between tasks or thoughts as needed.

B. It helps us use knowledge to think about a situation from a new perspective or change our behaviors when confronted with new information or circumstances.

C. It is considered a primary part of successful learning and achievement, cognitive flexibility allows us to alter how we pursue a goal when necessary, without losing sight of the goal itself.

D. It is the ability to attend to one particular aspect of a task in the face of other thoughts, information, and actions.


15. Acknowledging emotional connections and alleviating negative feelings that may be associated with particular goals could help to boost a person’s ability to focus on and pursue a goal.

A. True

B. False


16. Metacognition can be thought of as covering all of the following primary components, except for:

A. The person

B. The task

C. The environment

D. The strategies


17. Emotion regulation has predicted significant variability in the intensity of job-seeking behaviors, with greater emotional control related to more intense job seeking.

A. True

B. False


18. Emotional stability has been related to people’s ability to do all of the following, except:

A. Reach their goals

B. Work in teams

C. Approach problems in a solution-focused way

D. Achieve higher levels of overall job performance


19. Heritability estimates suggest that between 40 and 60 percent of personality factors are determined by aspects of the environment, rather than by genetics.

A. True

B. False


20. Which type of incentives can be manipulated to help people achieve goals?

A. Intrinsic incentives

B. Extrinsic incentives

C. Both intrinsic and extrinsic incentives can be manipulated to help people achieve goals

D. Neither intrinsic nor extrinsic incentives can be manipulated


21. Which of the following are more effective for maintaining longer-term effects?

A. Intrinsic incentives

B. Extrinsic incentives

C. Intrinsic and extrinsic incentives are equally important

D. Neither intrinsic nor extrinsic incentives play a role in long-term goals


22. Research suggests that imposing goals upon people is an important extrinsic motivator.

A. True

B. False


23. Research suggests that grit is governed by ability and that people’s tendency to be “gritty” increases over the life course.

A. True

B. False


24. Grit is conceptually related to, and highly correlated with, the personality factor:

A. Extraversion

B. Tough mindedness

C. Independence

D. Conscientiousness


25. There is evidence that shifting attention away from stereotype threats may improve performance.

A. True

B. False


Environmental Factors That Can Impede Self-Regulation and Goal Attainment

26. Early exposure to a range of adverse experiences affect which skills?

A. Working memory

B. Inhibition

C. Attention

D. Early exposure to a range of adverse experiences affect working memory, inhibition, attention, and emotion processing and regulation


27. In addition to the daily stressors on self-regulation, people living in poverty may experience tunneling, a narrowing of focus, which hinders daily life and serves no benefit.

A. True

B. False


Strategies to Promote Goal Attainment by Strengthening Self-Regulation Skills or Facilitating the Use of Self-Regulation

28. Generally, CBT involves all of the following steps to change behavioral responses, except:

A. People accept that some of their perceptions and interpretations of reality may be false and lead to negative thoughts.

B. People learn to recognize negative thoughts and contemplate alternative thoughts that are more positive.

C. People list out any possible pros and cons to their negative thoughts.

D. People decide whether real-world evidence matches their negative thought patterns or the alternative thoughts.


29. Research suggests that CBT is associated with improvements in all of the following self-regulation skills, except for:

A. Metacognition

B. Attention

C. Working memory

D. Inhibition


30. Research suggests that imagining a desired outcome is enough to make a goal successful.

A. True

B. False


31. All of the following pertain to mindfulness interventions, except for:

A. They emphasize goal setting to be focused on what is attainable, rather than only what is desirable.

B. They teach people to purposefully direct attention to what is happening in the moment and to monitor their feelings about what is happening in a non-judgmental way, rather than to default to automatic or negative thoughts and behaviors.

C. They give people the ability to direct their attention, and later their behavior, more intentionally.

D. They are intended to increase tolerance for distress so that we can plan our actions.


32. Outcomes associated with brief motivational interviewing is short-lived and interventions need to be repeated on a continual basis.

A. True

B. False


33. Broad goals are better than specific goals, as they give more flexibility for the person to attain the goal and change the actionable steps required to reach the final goal.

A. True

B. False


34. An important aspect of scaffolding support is that it is temporary - as the client’s abilities increase, the support is progressively withdrawn.

A. True

B. False


35. To be effective, incentives must be monetary.

A. True

B. False


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