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Self and Co-Regulation - Development, Promotion, and Principles

Co-Regulation From Birth Through Young Adulthood: A Practice Brief

1. Self-regulation can be defined as the act of managing thoughts and feelings to enable goal-directed actions, and includes a variety of behaviors necessary for success in school, relationships, and the workplace.

A. True

B. False


2. Self-regulation is internal to an individual.

A. True

B. False


3. All of the following are the broad categories of support that caregivers can provide children, youth, and young adults that will help them to develop foundational self-regulatory skills and expand these skills to meet increasingly complex regulatory needs as they grow, except for:

A. Provide interaction with peers of the same developmental stage

B. Provide a warm, responsive relationship

C. Structure the environment

D. Teach and coach self-regulation skills


4. The first thing for caregivers such as parents, teachers, coaches, and other mentors to focus on is:

A. Making sure the environment is safe and free of stress

B. Their own capacity for self-regulation

C. Teaching how to put feelings into words

D. How to calm oneself


5. Which of the following is a clear developmental period where child and youth abilities to self-regulate can increase dramatically due to corresponding changes in brain development?

A. Infant / Toddler

B. Late childhood

C. Early adolescence

D. Young Adult


6. There are individual differences in self-regulation capacity and need for co-regulation support that may be based on any of the following internal factors, except for:

A. Biology

B. Temperament

C. Skill development

D. Stress and adversity


7. Which of the following remains central to co-regulation across all age groups?

A. Maintenance of a warm caregiving relationship

B. Skill instruction

C. Management of all aspects of the environment

D. Supporting and monitoring environmental control


8. Self-regulation begins to develop at birth and expands rapidly over the first twelve years of life.

A. True

B. False


9. Which is the perfect time for caregivers to actively teach and coach skills like emotion identification, problem-solving, perspective-taking, and calm-down strategies?

A. While an infant / toddler

B. During the preschool years

C. In elementary school

D. During adolescence


10. Which is a relatively stable period developmentally, and gives caregivers extensive opportunities to instruct and coach children in using self-regulatory skills?

A. While an infant / toddler

B. During the preschool years

C. In elementary school

D. During adolescence


11. All of the following pertain in early and mid-adolescence, except for:

A. Brain systems that process emotions and seek rewards are more developed than the cognitive control systems responsible for good decision-making and future planning.

B. Teens are biased towards choices that offer short-term reward rather than long-term benefits.

C. Teens’ emotions heavily influence their decisions.

D. This is the time for caregivers to step back from their supportive roles.


Promoting Self-Regulation in the First Five Years: A Practice Brief

12. Which of the following sets the stage for self-regulation readiness?

A. Environmental context

B. Biology

C. Caregiver support

D. Internal and external motivation


13. Which of the following situations can make it harder for children to self-regulate?

A. Children that are more temperamentally sensitive and thus more easily overwhelmed by sensory input.

B. Experiencing more stressors in their environment.

C. Children that are more temperamentally sensitive and/or those experiencing more environmental stressors can each have a harder time with self-regulation.

D. Neither temperamental sensitivity nor environmental stressors impact the ability to self-regulate.


14. Parental warmth, responsiveness, and sensitivity support self-regulation development and may buffer the effects of other stressors in the family and environment.

A. True

B. False


15. Young children are incredibly sensitive to the emotions and behaviors of adults, and adults who are themselves feeling overly stressed may have a harder time calming a young child and, thus, may actually increase that child’s agitation, which in turn makes it harder to soothe them.

A. True

B. False


16. The most common area that improves with intervention is _____, arguably the most critical outcome for infants and toddlers due to its long-term impact on self-esteem and interpersonal relationship success.

A. Child behavior regulation

B. Rule-following

C. Calm-down skills

D. Child attachment


Promoting Self-Regulation in Adolescents and Young Adults: A Practice Brief

17. Providing a buffer against environmental stressors involves each of the following, except:

A. Providing mentoring to motivate youth.

B. Limiting opportunities for risk-taking behaviors.

C. Providing positive discipline and natural consequences for poor decisions.

D. Reducing the emotional intensity of conflict situations.


18. Evidence suggests that there are no interventions that can reverse the effects of individual and/or environmental risk factors that were present from an early age.

A. True

B. False


Seven Key Principles of Self-Regulation and Self Regulation in Context

19. Self-regulation can be strengthened and taught like literacy and skills that are not developed early on can be acquired later.

A. True

B. False


20. The most internal factor influencing a child’s capacity for self-regulation is comprised of the child’s internal motivation.

A. True

B. False


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