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Science of Addiction (Updated)

1. The euphoria caused by opioids such as heroin is followed by feelings of:

A. Power

B. Self-confidence

C. Increased energy

D. Relaxation and satisfaction


2. Which of the following is the hallmark of addiction?

A. Perception of a drug’s positive effects

B. Impairment in self-control

C. Other pleasurable activities become less pleasurable

D. Needing to take more of a drug or take it more often


3. Teens and people with mental disorders are at a greater risk of drug use and addiction than others.

A. True

B. False


4. All of the following increase a drug’s addictive potential, except for:

A. Smoking it

B. Injecting it

C. Snorting it

D. Smoking, injecting, and snorting all have the same addictive potential


5. One of the brain areas still maturing during adolescence is the _____, the part of the brain that allows people to assess situations, make sound decisions, and keep emotions and desires under control.

A. Basal ganglia

B. Prefrontal cortex

C. Extended amygdala

D. Brain stem


6. The parts of the brain that control judgement and decision-making do not fully develop until people are in their late 20’s or early 30’s, limiting a teen’s ability to accurately assess the risks of drug experimentation and makes young people more vulnerable to peer pressure.

A. True

B. False


7. Which research-based prevention program is for groups of children and teens who have specific factors that put them at increased risk of drug use?

A. Selective programs

B. Universal programs

C. Indicated programs

D. Modified cognitive programs


8. Some drugs can activate neurons in the same way as a natural neurotransmitter because their chemical structures mimic that of a natural neurotransmitter in the body.

A. True

B. False


9. Which area in the brain forms a key node of what is sometimes called the brain’s “reward circuit,” and for which drugs over-activate, producing the euphoria of the drug high, but with repeated exposure, this circuit adapts to the presence of the drug, diminishing its sensitivity and making it hard to feel pleasure from anything besides the drug?

A. Basal ganglia

B. Prefrontal cortex

C. Extended amygdala

D. Brain stem


10. Which brain circuit becomes increasingly sensitive with increased drug use and over time, a person with substance use disorder uses drugs to get temporary relief from discomfort rather than to get high?

A. Basal ganglia

B. Prefrontal cortex

C. Extended amygdala

D. Brain stem


11. Large surges of dopamine teach the brain to seek drugs at the expense of other, healthier goals and activities.

A. True

B. False


12. In some cases, mental disorders such as _____ may come before addiction.

A. Anxiety

B. Depression

C. Schizophrenia

D. In some cases, anxiety, depression, and schizophrenia may come before addiction


13. Addiction is a treatable disorder.

A. True

B. False


14. Relapse means that treatment has failed.

A. True

B. False


15. Which behavioral therapy seeks to help patients recognize, avoid, and cope with the situations in which they are most likely to use drugs?

A. Cognitive-behavioral therapy

B. Contingency management

C. Motivational enhancement therapy

D. Twelve-step facilitation


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