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Rethinking Schizophrenia

Rethinking Schizophrenia

1. After a century of studying schizophrenia, the cause of the disorder has finally been determined.

A. True

B. False


2. Treatments, especially pharmacological treatments, have been in wide use for nearly half a century, and have substantially improved outcomes for most people with schizophrenia.

A. True

B. False


3. In its most common form, schizophrenia presents with paranoid delusions and auditory hallucinations during which age?

A. Prepubescent

B. Early adolescence

C. Late adolescence or early adulthood

D. Late twenties or early thirties


4. A recent report from a patient advocacy group reported that in the US those with serious mental illness were three times more likely to be which of the following?

A. Found in hospitals rather than the criminal justice system.

B. Found in the criminal justice system rather than hospitals.

C. Found in the hospital rather than a group home.

D. Found in a group home rather than a hospital.


One-hundred years of schizophrenia

5. Both conventional and atypical antipsychotics reliably reduce delusions and hallucinations, in addition to enhancing functional recovery, such as employment, for people with schizophrenia.

A. True

B. False


6. A theory is that schizophrenia, particularly the cognitive symptoms of the disorder, may result from low activity of the NMDA receptor on GABA inhibitory interneurons in which section of the brain?

A. Prefrontal cortex

B. Frontal cortex

C. Temporal cortex

D. Parietal cortex


7. Although post-mortem studies have consistently reported a loss of GABA and reductions in key enzymes for glutamate biosynthesis, potentially consistent with the glutamate hypothesis, these changes may represent the effects of chronic illness or treatment of the disorder rather than the cause of schizophrenia.

A. True

B. False


8. Reported concordance in monozygotic twins was roughly _____%, never the 100% figure one might expect for a Mendelian disorder, but considerably higher than dizygotic twins or siblings.

A. 30

B. 40

C. 50

D. 60


Mapping the pathophysiology of schizophrenia

9. A recent report from a 45-year follow up of a Copenhagen birth cohort demonstrated that adults with schizophrenia have a history of delayed maturation including delayed developmental milestones in the first year.  The finding supports the hypothesis that psychosis does not emerge from a completely healthy brain.

A. True

B. False


10. Which of the following have been associated with subsequent increased risk for schizophrenia?

A. Maternal malnutrition during famine.

B. Infections in the second trimester.

C. Cytokine exposure.

D. All of the above.


11. A gene disrupted by a rare copy number variant in autism was found to be repressed by which alteration in a large number of children with autism who had a perfectly normal genomic sequence?

A. Hypomethylation

B. Hypermethylation

C. Hypoacetylation

D. Hyperacetylation


12. Children with schizophrenia seem to undergo excessive losses of grey matter and cortical thinning, essentially overshooting the normal pattern for adolescents.

A. True

B. False


The stages of schizophrenia

13. In 2010, all of the following were epidemic among people with schizophrenia, except:

A. Nicotine dependence

B. Stroke

C. Obesity

D. Hyperglycemia


Integration of care

14. The treatment of schizophrenia involves which of the following challenges not observed in most other chronic diseases?

A. Denial of illness

B. Paranoia

C. Irrational thoughts

D. All of the above


Stigma

15. In 2002, the Japanese officially replaced their term for schizophrenia, which has led to evidence indicating that this name change led to reduced stigma, in that fewer people associated the new name with which of the following?

A. Criminality

B. Mental insanity

C. Disability

D. All of the above


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