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Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Human Services

Executive Summary

1. Racial and ethnic differences in program participation automatically indicate a disparity.

A. True

B. False


2. Child welfare system scholars conclude that researchers need all of the following pieces of information to best detect disproportionality by race and ethnicity, except for:

A. The racial and ethnic distribution of the general population.

B. The demographic group’s underlying risk or need for the program or service.

C. The racial and ethnic distribution of program participants.

D. The racial and ethnic distribution of the caseworkers.


3. Controlling for characteristics such as age, education, and family size, most studies find that Hispanics are more likely to receive child care subsidies than other racial groups.

A. True

B. False


4. Which of the following enroll in Head Start at a lower rate?

A. African Americans

B. American Indians and Alaska Natives

C. Asian Americans

D. Hispanics


5. Although most of the differences only last until the end of kindergarten, studies have shown that _____ children experience the most social-emotional gains in attentiveness, parent and peer interactions, and relationships with teachers.

A. African American

B. American Indian and Alaska Native

C. Asian American

D. Hispanic


Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Human Services

6. Even policies and practices that are, by all appearances, neutral can deepen existing disparities.

A. True

B. False


7. All of the following are elective programs, meaning they may be available to those who meet the eligibility criteria and choose to use the resources, except for:

A. The Child Support Enforcement Program

B. Head Start

C. The Child Care and Development Fund

D. Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Program


8. Temporary Assistance for Needy Families is federally time-limited to:

A. 6 months

B. 24 months

C. 36 months

D. 60 months


9. According to the Differences Versus Disparities in the Health Care System figure, all of the following are disparities, except for:

A. The operations of health care systems

B. Clinical appropriateness and need

C. Stereotyping

D. Legal and regulatory climate


Research on Racial and Ethnic Disparities

10. All of the following are goals of the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families, except for:

A. Provide assistance to needy families so that children may be cared for in their own homes or in the homes of relatives.

B. Prevent and reduce the incidence of teen pregnancies.

C. End the dependence of needy parents on government benefits by promoting job preparation, work, and marriage.

D. Encourage the formation and maintenance of two-parent families.


11. Studies have found that sanctioned families have a 50% higher risk of food insecurity and 90% higher risk of an emergency room visit.

A. True

B. False


12. The racial and ethnic differences in the risk of being sanctioned disappear once the researchers adjust for participant-level controls, such as marital and employment status, education, age of children, age of client, citizenship, and disability status.

A. True

B. False


13. African American respondents in the Wisconsin Works program were twice as likely as whites to be drug tested, were offered worse shifts, and reported more negative experiences with the program because the employers likely believed stereotypes that African Americans are:

A. Lazier than other racial and ethnic groups.

B. Less likely to show up for work.

C. More likely to have substance abuse issues.

D. Less able to be trained for a particular job or set of skills.


14. Sanction rates may be lower in places where disproportionately affected populations also have political power.

A. True

B. False


15. Women who live in counties with persistent poverty are more likely to be sanctioned.

A. True

B. False


16. Caseworkers often make decisions about sanctioning and discretionary assistance, meaning that biases can affect sanctioning outcomes.

A. True

B. False


17. All of the following can serve as discrediting markers, a phenomenon that may trigger caseworker biases, except for:

A. Long-term welfare receipt

B. A previous sanction

C. Multiple children

D. Domestic violence


18. It was found that sanctions occur most often for quitting or not going to a job.

A. True

B. False


19. Research has shown that TANF programs that do not include subsistence practices like _____ in their work definitions disadvantage American Indian and Alaska Native populations and can lead to unfair sanctioning.

A. Hunting

B. Powwows

C. Sweat lodges

D. Raising bison


20. The literature on TANF outcomes suggest that _____ women are the group most likely to exhaust their time on welfare.

A. African American

B. American Indian and Alaska Native

C. Asian American

D. Hispanic


21. Compared to non-Hispanic white leavers, more African American leavers return to welfare within one year unless they have more education and work experience and fewer young children.

A. True

B. False


22. Child support agencies help custodial-parent families do all of the following, except:

A. Locate noncustodial parents

B. Establish paternity

C. Find employment

D. Set, enforce, and modify orders


23. Recent statistics show that _____ custodial parents have the highest rate of child support orders.

A. African American

B. Non-Hispanic White

C. Asian American

D. Hispanic


24. Nonwhite, young mothers who had never been married were more likely to report all of the following reasons for not pursuing child support, except for:

A. Father cannot afford to pay child support.

B. Paternity not established.

C. Unable to locate father.

D. Didn’t want father to pay child support.


25. Child support cannot be enforced without paternity establishment.

A. True

B. False


26. Unmarried fathers cannot have visitation and custody rights without legal paternity establishment.

A. True

B. False


27. Fathers who establish paternity are more likely to pay child support and spend more time with their children.

A. True

B. False


28. White custodial mothers are more likely to report “paternity not established” as the reason for not having a child support order.

A. True

B. False


29. Studies have shown that noncustodial parents are less likely to comply when orders are set at more than _____ of their income.

A. 10%

B. 20%

C. 30%

D. 40%


30. Child support accounts for over half of custodial parents’ income in families with incomes below the federal poverty level who receive the order amount in full.

A. True

B. False


31. Studies have found that the poorest noncustodial parents owe the most debt.

A. True

B. False


32. Researchers have simulated eligibility by race for child care subsidies using state eligibility guidelines and found that the highest proportion of eligible mothers are:

A. African American

B. White

C. Asian American

D. Hispanic


33. Controlling for characteristics such as age, education, and family size, most studies have found that _____ are more likely than other racial groups to receive child care subsidies.

A. African Americans

B. Non-Hispanic Whites

C. Asian Americans

D. Hispanics


34. Families who receive subsidies are more likely to have greater access to child care that is more affordable and of higher quality than eligible families with similar characteristics not receiving subsidies.

A. True

B. False


35. _____ households, on average, have a higher proportion of centers in their communities serving children under age 3.

A. African American

B. Non-Hispanic White

C. Asian American

D. Hispanic


36. Families using subsidized child care are more likely to use:

A. Relative care

B. Formal child care arrangements

C. Home care

D. Nannies


37. Hispanic households rated relative or friend care higher than African American and non-Hispanic white households.

A. True

B. False


38. Which of the following are most likely to use relative care over center-based care?

A. African American families

B. Non-Hispanic White families

C. Asian American families

D. Hispanic families


39. Which of the following mothers are more likely to remain out of the paid labor force while their children are young, therefore reducing the need for child care arrangements?

A. African American

B. Non-Hispanic White

C. Asian American

D. Hispanic


40. Relative to white families, being _____ is associated with a higher probability of exit from subsidies.

A. African American

B. Asian American

C. Hispanic

D. American Indian or Alaska Native


41. Studies have found that families receiving child care subsidies have all of the following, except:

A. Higher rates of maternal employment

B. Increases in mothers’ earning

C. Better child development outcomes

D. Families receiving child care subsidies have higher rates of maternal employment, increases in mothers’ earning, and better child development outcomes


42. Among low-income African American children, early entry into child care predicted:

A. Increased school readiness

B. Higher levels of social skills

C. Fewer emotional disorder diagnoses

D. Less substance abuse later in life


43. Nationally, _____ have the highest percentage of eligible children enrolled in Head Start.

A. African Americans

B. Asian Americans

C. Hispanics

D. American Indian or Alaska Natives


44. The Head Start staff may overlook _____ students’ need for special education because of language barriers and high levels of obedience mask disabilities.

A. African American

B. Asian American

C. Hispanic

D. American Indian or Alaska Native


45. A randomized control trial of sexual risk avoidance and reduction programs prior to the enactment of the Sexual Risk Avoidance Education Program found that risk avoidance programs delayed sexual initiation of _____ students.

A. African American

B. Asian American

C. Hispanic

D. American Indian or Alaska Native


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