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PTSD and Cardiovascular Disease

1. Using data from nearly 2,000 male Veterans from the VA Normative Aging Study, it was found that for each standard deviation increase in PTSD symptom severity, there was an associated _____% increased risk of coronary heart disease, even after adjusting for known coronary risk factors.

A. 8

B. 18

C. 28

D. 38


2. After matching for CVD risk level based on traditional factors, patients with PTSD were significantly more likely to have coronary artery calcium deposits and to have a higher coronary artery calcium score, indicating a greater burden of atherosclerotic heart disease.

A. True

B. False


3. Many studies found the association of PTSD and CVD to be independent of which traditional risk factor?

A. Smoking

B. High blood pressure

C. Obesity

D. All of the above


4. A population-based study found which inflammatory biomarker in participants with PTSD to be at a nearly two-fold risk of increased levels compared to their counterparts without PTSD?

A. C-reactive protein

B. Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha

C. Serum Amyloid A

D. All of the above


5. Traumatic stress activates the _____ causing increased production of catecholamines, rennin, angiotensin II, and aldosterone, which can directly damage the cardiovascular system.

A. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis

B. Sympathetic-adrenal-medullary system

C. Both (A) and (B)

D. None of the above


6. Researchers have found over 100 genes that are common to both PTSD and CVD, with many of these genes known to impact immune function.

A. True

B. False


7. PTSD has been linked to which behavioral change that could increase CVD risk?

A. Decreased activity levels and medication adherence

B. Increased smoking and substance use

C. Sleep disturbances

D. All of the above


8. Combat deployments are associated with new-onset CHD among young US service members and veterans, for which experiences of intense stress may increase the risk for CHD over a relatively short period among young adults.

A. True

B. False


9. PTSD was associated with _____ higher carotid artery intima-media thickness after adjustment for confounders.

A. 32.7 nanometer

B. 32.7 micrometer

C. 32.7 millimeter

D. 32.7 centimeter


10. PTSD symptoms may have damaging effects on physical health for civilian community-dwelling women, with high levels of PTSD symptoms associated with increased risk of CHD-related morbidity and mortality.

A. True

B. False


11. The common mechanism for the linkage between PTSD and CVD is:

A. Innate immunity

B. NFkB-mediated inflammation

C. Both (A) and (B)

D. None of the above


12. Researchers have found that a single nucleotide polymorphism of the _____ gene was associated with increased CVD risk and acute stress.

A. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)

B. Phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase

C. Vitamin D binding protein

D. All of the above


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