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PTSD and Accelerated Aging

1. A longitudinal study of Dutch Veterans suggest that:

A. Trauma exposure is associated with greater Horvath DNAm age over time.

B. Trauma exposure is associated with greater Hannum DNAm age over time.

C. PTSD is associated with increased DNAm age over time.

D. All of the above.

2. Many of the loci included in the Horvath DNAm age script are responsive to glucocorticoid signaling and/or located in glucocorticoid response elements.

A. True

B. False

3. Veterans with PTSD under age 40 have a greater prevalence of _____ in comparison to an epidemiological sample of the same age.

A. Cardiovascular disease

B. Metabolic syndrome

C. Both (A) and (B)

D. None of the above

4. PTSD chronicity, having severe PTSD for a long period of time, is associated with reduced cortical thickness in the _____ brain region, even after controlling for age-related effects.

A. Prefrontal

B. Temoral

C. Both (A) and (B)

D. None of the above

5. Which of the following was found for military personnel deployed to a combat zone in Afghanistan?

A. There was a significant reduction of telomere length associated with trauma.

B. Development of PTSD symptoms was associated with telomere lengthening.

C. PTSD symptoms are directly associated with epigenetic aging.

D. All of the above.

6. DNA methylation age has which property?

A. It is close to zero for embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells.

B. It correlates with cell passage number.

C. It gives rise to a highly heritable measure of age acceleration.

D. All of the above.

7. DNA methylation age is applicable to all primate tissues.

A. True

B. False

8. Shortened leukocyte telomere length reflects:

A. A cell’s mitotic history.

B. A cell’s cumulative exposure to inflammation and oxidation.

C. A cell’s availability of telomerase.

D. All of the above.

9. Shorter LTL correlates with poorer health and predicts mortality.

A. True

B. False

10. An increase in which pro-inflammatory marker was found in PTSD?

A. C-reactive protein

B. Interleukin-6

C. Tumor necrosis factor alpha

D. All of the above

11. DNA methylation-derived measures of accelerated aging are heritable traits that predict mortality independently of health status, lifestyle factors, and known genetic factors.

A. True

B. False

12. With age as the time scale, Cox proportional hazards models indicated that patients with PTSD were more than _____ as likely to develop incident dementia compared with those without PTSD.

A. 2 times

B. 3 times

C. 4 times

D. 5 times

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