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Men and Suicide: A Neural Basis for the Acquired Capability

Introduction

1. Men are far more likely to die by suicide than women, despite the fact that they are significantly less likely to experience:

A. Depression

B. Suicidal ideation

C. Non-fatal suicide attempts

D. All of the above


2. Even among those who choose the same method, men are more likely than women to have a fatal outcome, thus, method selection alone cannot explain the observed gender differences in fatal suicidal behavior.

A. True

B. False


3. There is evidence that women have decreased serotonin binding in the prefrontal cortex compared to men, which suggests that prefrontal hypoactivity may explain:

A. The elevated risk for non-lethal suicidal behavior in women.

B. The elevated risk for lethal suicidal behavior in men.

C. Both (A) and (B).

D. None of the above.


4. A lethal suicide attempt is only possible when a desire for suicide simultaneously occurs with:

A. Fearlessness about death.

B. Physical pain tolerance.

C. Both (A) and (B).

D. None of the above.


5. Sensation-seeking fully accounts for the relationship between gender and physical pain insensitivity, and stoicism fully accounts for the relationship between gender and fearlessness about death.

A. True

B. False


6. Numerous studies have demonstrated an association between male gender and:

A. Stoicism

B. Sensation-seeking

C. Both (A) and (B)

D. None of the above


Discussion

7. All of the following are activated exclusively in males, except for:

A. Regions in the cerebellum.

B. The amygdala and cingulate.

C. Bilateral precentral gyrus.

D. The right mid frontal gyrus.


8. The utilization of _____ areas in the ACS network in males may imply that, if the ACS network is activated in males, there are greater chances of them executing the action as intended, in contrast to females.

A. Motor

B. Cerebellum

C. Limbic system

D. All of the above


9. Females demonstrate right caudate utilization only, while males demonstrate left caudate activation only.

A. True

B. False


10. Males engage a larger ACS-depression functional network than women, which might be a factor responsible for higher lethal suicidal behavior in men.

A. True

B. False


11. All of the following have been shown to form a part of the hate circuit that is engaged while experiencing hate toward an individual, which may be relevant to self-hatred, except for:

A. The premotor cortex.

B. The right insula.

C. The medial frontal gyrus.

D. All of the above are part of the hate circuit.


12. A comprehensive review of postmortem studies in completed suicide show that _____ are altered in individuals who have committed suicide?

A. Genetics

B. Neurotransmitters

C. Cell signaling

D. All of the above


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