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Human Services for Low Income and At Risk LGBT Populations

Executive Summary

1. LGBT individuals and families may be more likely than their non-LGBT counterparts to experience which of the following?

A. Family disruption

B. Homelessness

C. Obstacles to positive youth development

D. All of the above


2. Gender identity measures may address all of the following, except:

A. Self-identification

B. Sexual behavior

C. Gender expression

D. Gender nonconformity


3. Multivariate analyses that control for characteristics associated with the likelihood of receiving benefits indicate that same-sex male and female couples are more likely to receive cash assistance and SNAP benefits than similar married different-sex couples.

A. True

B. False


4. Among individual adults ages 18 to 44, bisexual women are less likely than heterosexual women to report receiving cash assistance.

A. True

B. False


5. A longitudinal study of a purposive sample of youth found that a higher level of which of the following during childhood was associated with increased risk of maltreatment?

A. Gender nonconforming behavior

B. Special needs

C. Social isolation

D. Family disorganization


6. Factors that promote resilience for LGBT youth include which of the following?

A. Parental acceptance

B. The presence of supportive adults in schools

C. A protective school climate

D. All of the above


7. Which of the following have been found more likely to become pregnant or cause a pregnancy compared to heterosexuals?

A. Lesbian adolescents

B. Gay adolescents

C. Bisexual adolescents

D. All of the above


Introduction

8. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender populations share a common experience of not conforming to cultural norms regarding all of the following, except for:

A. Sexual orientation

B. Safe sexual practices

C. Gender identity

D. Gender expression


9. Approximately 12.5% of the U.S. adult population identify as LGB and approximately 2% of U.S. adults are transgender.

A. True

B. False


10. Which of the following was identified by the Institute of Medicine as a primary source of barriers to accessing health care for the LGBT populations?

A. Lack of health insurance

B. Lack of competent care

C. Social stigma

D. All of the above


Measurement, Data Collection, and Analysis Issues in Research on LGBT Populations

11. A person can identify as lesbian, gay, or bisexual prior to actually having a sexual relationship with a same-sex partner.

A. True

B. False


12. One can feel some sexual or emotional attraction to those of the same sex or gender and still identify as heterosexual.

A. True

B. False


13. When measuring a small population within a large survey, the issue of “false negatives” is a common measurement problem.

A. True

B. False


14. Healthcare providers concerned about protecting the confidentiality of clients may be reluctant to document sexual orientation or gender identity in client records, making the collection of administrative data challenging.

A. True

B. False


Low-Income LGBT Populations and Programs to Support Self-Sufficiency

15. Based upon data from the 2000 Census and the 2010 ACS, which couples were least likely to be in poverty?

A. Different-sex married couples

B. Different-sex unmarried couples

C. Male same-sex couples

D. Female same-sex couples


16. Based upon data from the 2000 Census and the 2010 ACS, which couples were most likely to be in poverty?

A. Different-sex married couples

B. Different-sex unmarried couples

C. Male same-sex couples

D. Female same-sex couples


17. All of the following subgroups of bisexuals appear to have higher poverty rates than their heterosexual counterparts, except for:

A. Men

B. People who are 18 to 24 years of age

C. Those with a high-school diploma or less education

D. Those that are white or multiracial


18. After taking into account differences in gender, age, race/ethnicity, and educational attainment between LGBT and non-LGBT respondents, multivariate analyses of the Gallup Daily Tracking data suggest that LGBT-identified adults are 9.7 times more likely than non-LGBT adults to report not having enough money for food in the last year.

A. True

B. False


19. Lesbians tend to report the same or slightly higher earnings when compared to heterosexual women.

A. True

B. False


20. Receipt of which of the following were found to be higher among same-sex couples compared to different-sex married couples and among LGB individuals ages 18 to 44 compared to heterosexuals in the same age range?

A. Cash assistance

B. SNAP

C. Medicaid

D. All of the above


21. Men in same-sex couples were _____ as likely to report receiving cash assistance when compared to men in different-sex married couples.

A. 0.6 times

B. 1.2 times

C. 2.0 times

D. 3.5 times


22. In bivariate analyses of NSFG data, significant differences in receipt of cash assistance were observed between bisexual and heterosexual women ages 18 to 44 and between gay/lesbian and heterosexual adults.

A. True

B. False


23. Among same-sex couples raising a biological, adopted, or stepchild under age 18, _____% reported participation in SNAP, compared to 14% of different-sex couples raising children.

A. 16

B. 22

C. 26

D. 34


24. Among adults ages 18 to 44, bisexual women are more likely than heterosexual women to report receiving food stamps.

A. True

B. False


25. Male and female same-sex couples are more likely than their married different-sex counterparts to report SNAP participation.

A. True

B. False


26. Analyses of 2006-2010 NSFG data found that across sexual orientation identities, which of the following were the most likely to report being on Medicaid?

A. Bisexuals

B. Lesbians

C. Gay men

D. Heterosexuals


27. Which of the following is a primary pathway to Medicaid eligibility?

A. Unemployment

B. Self-employment

C. Having children

D. All of the above


28. Bisexual adults are much more likely to be raising children under age 18 compared to lesbian or gay individuals.

A. True

B. False


29. NTDS data found that Medicaid participation was substantially higher among all of the following respondents, except for:

A. Those without a high-school diploma.

B. Those living in the Southeast region of the country.

C. African Americans.

D. Medicaid participation was substantially higher among all of the above.


30. Transgender respondents to the NTDS reported which of the following difficulties associated with participation in services?

A. Being denied equal treatment.

B. Harassment by government agencies.

C. Challenges in obtaining legal documents that accurately represent their gender identity.

D. All of the above.


31. In a nationally representative survey of LGBT adults conducted by the Pew Research Center, more than one in _____ LGBT individuals reported having ever been treated unfairly by an employer as a result of their sexual orientation or gender identity.

A. 3

B. 4

C. 5

D. 6


32. What percentage of NTDS respondents reported experiencing harassment, mistreatment, or discrimination in the workplace?

A. 90%

B. 70%

C. 50%

D. 30%


LGBT Populations and the Child Welfare System

33. Relative to other girls, sexual minority girls have a higher likelihood of experiencing sexual abuse than sexual minority boys.

A. True

B. False


34. Among respondents to the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States, a nationally representative survey of people 25 to 74 years old, gay or bisexual men were significantly more likely than non-LGB men to report all of the following maltreatment by their parents, except for:

A. Emotional

B. Sexual

C. Physical

D. All of the above were more likely


35. Among respondents to the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States, a nationally representative survey of people 25 to 74 years old, lesbians / bisexual women were more likely than non-lesbian / non-bisexual women to report having experienced which type of maltreatment by their parents?

A. Emotional

B. Sexual

C. Physical

D. All of the above


36. A study comparing the lifetime victimization experiences of a purposively selected sample of LGB adults and their non-LGB siblings found than LGB adults were significantly more likely than their siblings were to report childhood psychological and physical abuse from parents or caretakers.

A. True

B. False


37. Among respondents to a large cohort survey (the Nurses’ Health Study II), significantly higher proportions of lesbians and bisexual women than other women reported experiencing as a child or adolescent:

A. Emotional abuse by a family member.

B. Physical abuse by a parent or guardian.

C. Sexual abuse.

D. All of the above.


38. In analyses of a longitudinal, community-based cohort study of U.S. youth (the Growing Up Today study), participants who reported demonstrating higher levels of childhood gender nonconformity were significantly more likely than those with lower levels to have experienced which of the following within the family up to age 17?

A. Psychological abuse

B. Physical abuse

C. Sexual abuse

D. All of the above


39. In analyses of a longitudinal, community-based cohort study of U.S. youth (the Growing Up Today study), men who reported demonstrating higher levels of childhood gender nonconformity were likelier to experience which of the following before age 11?

A. Psychological abuse

B. Physical abuse

C. Sexual abuse

D. All of the above


40. A study of a purposive sample of more than 2,000 sexual minority women examined associations between the timing of minority sexual orientation development and experiences of childhood maltreatment and abuse found that women who were aware of same-gender sexual attractions before age 10 and those who disclosed their minority sexual orientation to another person before age 16 were significantly more likely than other women to experience harassment and abuse by family members.

A. True

B. False


41. In a study of a purposive sample of LGB youth ages 14 to 21 and living at home, youth who had revealed their sexual orientation to a family member reported higher levels of which of the following compared to those who had not?

A. Physical threats

B. Verbal abuse

C. Physical abuse

D. All of the above


42. Participants in various studies report that LGBT youth experience all of the following, except:

A. Threats by child welfare agency staff and foster parents.

B. Harassment in group care.

C. Expressions of discomfort, insensitivity, or rejection by child welfare agency staff and foster parents.

D. Feelings of isolation.


43. Among the youth involved in the analyzed studies, foster care youth worry that child welfare workers will record or disclose information about the youths’ sexual orientation to peers or other staff without their consent.

A. True

B. False


44. Which of the following may lead to services and referrals that are inadequate or inappropriate for LGBT youth?

A. An unsupportive climate in child welfare agencies.

B. A discriminatory climate in child welfare agencies.

C. A lack of knowledge or experience regarding LGBT issues among agency staff.

D. All of the above.


45. Findings from the Los Angeles Foster Youth Survey found that a larger percentage of LGBT youth than non-LGBT youth were:

A. In a group home

B. In foster care

C. In homeless shelters

D. Living on the street


46. All of the following outcomes among LGB youth aging out of foster care, as determined by the Midwest Study, differed from those of non-LGB youth, except for:

A. LGB youth were more likely to experience food insecurity.

B. LGB youth are at a higher risk of not achieving self-sufficiency in adulthood.

C. LGB youth were more likely to receive some types of public assistance.

D. LGB youth reported a lower average hourly wage.


47. Policies that bar discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity are intended to do all of the following, except:

A. Prohibit harassment

B. Prohibit denial of services

C. Prohibit stigma

D. Prohibit the use of slurs and other expressions of bias


48. To promote sensitivity, knowledge, and skills related to LGBT issues in child welfare agencies, experts and organizations recommend mandatory and ongoing cultural competency training for caseworkers, foster parents, and other caregivers.

A. True

B. False


49. All of the following are among the suggested training topics for caseworkers, foster parents, and other caregivers, except for:

A. Preventing feelings of isolation among LGBT people.

B. Appropriate terminology for referring to LGBT people.

C. Assessment of personal biases regarding sexual minorities.

D. The nature of sexual orientation and gender identity development among children and youth.


50. Child welfare agencies are strongly urged to provide mental health interventions designed to change youths’ sexual orientation or gender identity.

A. True

B. False


51. It is recommended that child welfare agencies protect LGBT youth from violence and harassment in which of the following settings, and ensure their access to community resources specifically for LGBT people?

A. Correctional settings

B. Education settings

C. Medical settings

D. Home settings


52. Which of the following has been identified as an LGBT youth group in child welfare settings?

A. Those experiencing family rejection due to LGBT identity.

B. Those in the child welfare system for reasons other than their LGBT identity.

C. Those who are questioning or disclose their LGBT identity after having been in the system for a long time.

D. All of the above.


53. Services to support permanency for LGBT youth may need to specifically address issues of:

A. Sexual orientation

B. Gender identity

C. Current family relationships

D. All of the above


54. Most agencies routinely gather data on the sexual orientation or gender identity of children and youth they serve because federal administrative data systems related to child welfare require reporting these data about client populations.

A. True

B. False


55. Based on input from child welfare professionals and researchers, several child welfare and LGBT community organizations have prepared a set of draft guidelines that encourage agencies to gather information on and document the gender identity of children _____ years old or older.

A. 3

B. 4

C. 5

D. 6


56. Based on input from child welfare professionals and researchers, several child welfare and LGBT community organizations have prepared a set of draft guidelines that encourage agencies to gather information on and document the sexual orientation of children _____ years old or older.

A. 8

B. 10

C. 12

D. 14


57. Based on input from child welfare professionals and researchers, several child welfare and LGBT community organizations have prepared a set of draft guidelines that indicate which of the following?

A. Children should be involved in the decisions to disclose sexual orientation and gender identity information within the agency or externally whenever possible.

B. Staff should base decisions to disclose sexual orientation and gender identity information on a clear rationale related to the best interests of the child.

C. Safeguards should be in place at the agency level to prevent disclosures that are harmful or inappropriate.

D. All of the above.


58. Existing research using nationally representative, population-based survey data suggest that same-sex couples are less likely to be adoptive or foster parents than different-sex couples.

A. True

B. False


59. Of the same-sex couples in the ACS sample, a larger proportion of male same-sex couples adopted children than did female same-sex couples.

A. True

B. False


60. Adoptive parents in same-sex couples, compared to different-sex couples, are all of the following, except:

A. Slightly older

B. More likely to be white

C. More likely to have completed college or graduate-level education

D. More likely to live in the Northeast


61. Members of both different-sex and same-sex couples reported issues related to all of the following, except:

A. Agencies’ insufficient support services for foster parents

B. Agencies’ poor communication

C. Stressors related to legal uncertainty

D. Agencies’ disorganization


62. Child welfare agencies are encouraged to adopt policies prohibiting discrimination of those interested in fostering or adopting children based on which of the following?

A. Sexual orientation

B. Gender identity

C. Marital status

D. All of the above


63. Experts advise that processes for assessing prospective foster and adoptive parents should neither emphasize nor completely ignore issues related to sexual orientation or gender identity.

A. True

B. False


64. Agencies are encouraged to treat LGBT parents equitably during the home study while exploring LGBT-specific topics that may be relevant to parenting, such as the applicants’:

A. Coming out process

B. Relationships with partners and extended family or other support networks

C. Responses to discrimination

D. All of the above


LGBT Youth and Services to Support Them

65. The research base suggests that LGBT youth are more likely than their non-LGBT peers to engage in many types of risky behavior, experience such mental health issues as suicidal thoughts or behavior, and face challenges in peer and family relationships.

A. True

B. False


66. Analyses of YRBS data in 13 states and school districts found higher prevalence of which of the following health risk behaviors among students who identified themselves as LGB and students who had sexual contact with both sexes compared to non-self-identified LGB students?

A. Tobacco use

B. Alcohol and other drug use

C. Sexual risk behaviors

D. All of the above


67. A study using data from 1995 Massachusetts YRBS found that LGB students were significantly more likely than non-LGB students to report all of the following, except:

A. Lifetime and recent sexual intercourse

B. More sexual partners

C. Older age at first sexual intercourse

D. Use of alcohol or drugs before sex


68. Studies based on surveys of large purposive samples of LGBT and non-LGBT high-school students suggest that a hostile school climate contributes to lower self-esteem and poorer educational outcomes among LGBT youth.

A. True

B. False


69. One study of a community sample of LGB youth found that social support promoted mental health and eliminated the negative effects of victimization.

A. True

B. False


70. A large proportion of LGBT youth ages 14 to 19 expressed interest in LGBT-specific:

A. Sex education

B. Peer support

C. Help with dating and relationship issues

D. All of the above


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