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Quantum Units Education®

LGBTQ Youth, YMSM and YWSW Who Engage in Survival Sex

Highlights

1. Those youth who did not use a condom for protection cited which of the following as the reason?

A. Getting paid more to not use a condom.

B. Not feeling the need to use protection with their partner or friend.

C. Trusting regular clients.

D. All of the above.


2. Although most of the youth had positive things to say about the youth programs and services offered to them, some recounted negative experiences, especially feeling discriminated against based on their:

A. Sexual orientation

B. Gender identity

C. Either (A) and/or (B)

D. None of the above


3. Of the unmet needs of youth who sought services, which of the following did the highest proportion of youth wish had been offered by the provider they visited?

A. Vocational / education assistance

B. Permanent housing assistance

C. Short-term crisis or emergency shelter

D. Substance abuse assistance


Literature Review

4. LGBTQ youth, overall, are at a disproportionately greater risk for negative health outcomes compared with heterosexual and cisgender youth.

A. True

B. False


5. LGBTQ youth who experience discrimination, including verbal abuse, from their peers often exhibit which of the following that ultimately contribute to severe emotional distress?

A. Symptoms of depression

B. High risks of self-harming behavior

C. Suicidal thoughts

D. All of the above


6. LGBTQ youth who have experienced sexual abuse are more likely to experience all of the following mental health issues, except for:

A. Depression

B. Antisocial personality disorder

C. Borderline personality disorder

D. Posttraumatic stress disorder


7. Due to the discrimination LGBTQ youth experience within schools, communities, and families, many turn to drugs or alcohol to help cope with these challenges.

A. True

B. False


LGBTQ Youth Health Issues, Substance Use, and Treatment Service Experiences

8. The most common form of barrier and nonbarrier protection that youth reported using was:

A. Condoms

B. Dental dams

C. Birth control

D. Doctor visits


9. For the youth who reported using condoms, the highest proportion cited getting them:

A. By purchasing themselves

B. From a health clinic

C. From a service provider

D. From their customers


10. Although youth knew they could access free condoms at various programs, many still insisted on purchasing their own because they believed condoms purchased in a store have not been tampered with.

A. True

B. False


11. Among the youth reporting a previous or current STI, the most common type of infection was:

A. Genital herpes

B. Chlamydia

C. Gonorrhea

D. Human papillomavirus


12. Among youth who reported suffering from other health problems beyond those transmitted sexually, the highest rates of self-reported health issues were among:

A. Latinos and Latinas

B. Black / African American

C. White

D. Multiracial


13. Physically, the primary health problem youth reported was diabetes.

A. True

B. False


14. Some of the young people that had been diagnosed with bipolar disorder as a child or teenager felt they were misdiagnosed, and many of the symptoms and behaviors that suggested bipolar disorder, depression, and mania were actually typical reactions and emotions for a young person who has been through a number of traumatic experiences.

A. True

B. False


15. The PTSD from which many young people suffer stems from a variety of concurrent and even contemporaneous traumatic experiences for which it is usually easy to pinpoint a single source.

A. True

B. False


16. Having access to medical care through service providers, clinics, and mobile vans was cited as a major motivator for getting frequent HIV and STI screenings and other medical care.

A. True

B. False


17. Among the youth who had not visited a doctor in the past year, all of the following were given as reasons, except for:

A. Untrusting of health care providers.

B. Not having health insurance.

C. Unaware of the free medical care offered by various clinics and service providers.

D. Afraid of being tested and learning they had contracted HIV.


18. Youth who reported having an STD were asked how they treated that infection, with an overwhelming majority reporting they did nothing to treat it.

A. True

B. False


19. The majority of youth had last obtained medical treatment through:

A. Emergency rooms

B. Walk-in service provider clinics

C. Outreach vans

D. Family doctors


20. Many of the youth sought out clinics, mobile vans, and other medical services geared toward youth because they felt staff would:

A. Be more open to questions.

B. Know when to not ask questions.

C. Explain things in ways young people could understand.

D. All of the above.


21. Transgender youth, especially, looked for medical staff who had experience working with transgender individuals and were knowledgeable about hormone therapy and other gender-affirming medical treatment.

A. True

B. False


22. Of the youth who reported current or past substance use, the most common substance used was tobacco.

A. True

B. False


23. Most or all of the youth in the study were all of the following, except for:

A. Homeless

B. Addicted to hard substances

C. Engaged in survival sex

D. Most or all of the youth were all of the above


24. Family members played a big role in the first experience with drugs for many of the young people.

A. True

B. False


25. Of the services offered by the organizations and programs the youth visited, which of the following was offered most often?

A. Medical services

B. Counseling

C. Shelter

D. Food


26. Of the youth that stated they had never sought assistance from a service provider, almost all said that they did not seek help because they did not believe the program could help them or had heard negative things about the organization, specifically those that offered emergency shelter beds.

A. True

B. False


27. Youth who refused services from providers cited which of the following as the reason?

A. Wanting to feel independent

B. Experiencing rudeness or harassment by staff

C. Experiencing homophobia or transphobia

D. All of the above


Service Provider Perspectives

28. Client connection activities involve:

A. Coming into contact with LGBTQ youth to let them know services to meet their needs are available.

B. Determining what a client’s specific service needs are.

C. Tracking the progress and outcomes of individuals who become clients across various programs and services.

D. All of the above.


29. Legal services provided by many organizations include all of the following, except for:

A. Criminal representation and civil remedies

B. Gender transition-related services

C. Receiving loans for housing and/or education

D. Procuring benefits such as health insurance and food stamps


30. A key characteristic among the service providers interviewed was their formal and informal partnerships with one another and dependence on each other to provide supplemental services.

A. True

B. False


31. There is a particular lack of _____ for youth between the ages of 21 and 24 year.

A. Funded beds

B. Mental health services

C. Medical services

D. Public assistance


32. Some clients are comfortable acknowledging trading sex, but others often do not use the label owing to embarrassment or shame, or they do not even consider it trading sex.

A. True

B. False


33. The service providers viewed _____ as the most common health issue among their client population and an area that was critical to address.

A. HIV and sexually transmitted infections

B. Mental health issues

C. Substance abuse

D. Homelessness


34. One service provider identified the _____ as the prime challenge for noncitizen clients.

A. Lack of service provider cultural competency

B. Inability to speak English

C. Cultural dynamic in the family

D. Fear of deportation


Discussion and Summary

35. For LGBTQ youth, YMSM, and YWSW, safety means:

A. Access to free contraception so they can practice safe sex.

B. Access to transspecific medical care, including free hormones and treatment from doctors trained in health issues specific to transgender individuals.

C. Being able to be in a space and around people who accept them for who they are, let them be who they are, and encourage them that anything is possible.

D. All of the above.


36. The key to youth developing a good rapport with doctors and feeling comfortable disclosing their engagement in survival sex was a safe, nonjudgmental space in which youth felt they could say or ask anything without:

A. Being asked a lot of follow-up questions.

B. Having to endure a lecture.

C. Triggering the involvement of third parties such as parents, guardians, or child protection services.

D. All of the above.


Policy and Practice Recommendations

37. Although the youth who received medical treatment from a medical van were appreciative of the convenience of the vans, the medical staff tended to park in areas where the young people were less likely to congregate.

A. True

B. False


38. Having medical care providers in walk-in clinics and emergency rooms trained in how to serve teenagers and young adults is crucial to establish trust and ensure young people will continue to seek medical care when needed.

A. True

B. False


39. Increasing awareness of and access to preexposure prophylaxis, which has been shown to reduce the risk of getting HIV from sex by more than _____, is a crucial and necessary step to preventing HIV infection among this population.

A. 90%

B. 75%

C. 50%

D. 35%


40. Youth often move around from provider to provider, which results in their being seen, and ultimately diagnosed, by different psychologists and psychiatrists.  This lack of continuity can lead to conflicting diagnoses, misdiagnoses, and overdiagnoses of Axis I and Axis II mental health disorders, especially:

A. Schizophrenia

B. Bipolar disorder

C. Borderline personality disorder

D. Posttraumatic stress disorder


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