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Legal Protection for Older Adults During All-Hazards Emergencies

Introduction

1. Which of the following impair older adults’ ability to prepare for, respond to, and adapt during emergencies, and can therefore put them at greater risk of illness and death?

A. Older adults have impaired mobility.

B. Older adults have diminished sensory awareness.

C. Older adults have social and economic limitations.

D. All of the above.


2. One way to improve emergency response and recovery efforts is to build strong communities.

A. True

B. False


3. People who cannot comfortably or safely access and use the standard resources offered in disaster preparedness, relief, and recovery, are known as:

A. Vulnerable populations

B. At-risk populations

C. Special needs populations

D. All of the above


4. When creating health or emergency messages or instructions, which of the following should be kept in mind?

A. Officials who work in emergency planning must be aware of the needs and limitations of diverse populations, including older adults.

B. Age-related limitations such as cognitive, hearing, and vision impairments can make it hard for some older adults to get and understand health messages or emergency information.

C. A person’s cultural background, language, and literacy level can also affect his or her ability to get, understand, and act on information in an emergency at any age.

D. All of the above.


5. Functional Needs Support Services are defined as services that enable individuals to maintain their independence in a special needs shelter.

A. True

B. False


6. Functional Needs Support Services include all of the following, except for:

A. Reasonable modification to policies, practices, and procedures.

B. Durable medical equipment.

C. Financial assistance with rent, heat, and food.

D. Consumable medical supplies.


Overarching Considerations

7. Which of the following factors must be considered when preparing for and protecting vulnerable older adults in an emergency?

A. The existence, or lack of, relevant legal authorities.

B. The type of emergency most likely to happen.

C. Whether the jurisdiction is primarily urban or rural.

D. All of the above.


8. Planning officials should do all of the following to protect vulnerable older adults during emergencies, except for:

A. Identify and review relevant legal authorities.

B. Develop and make accessible information about public health laws and best practices.

C. Define the different categories of emergencies and hazards to better understand how specific emergencies may affect older adults in the community.

D. Use operational models of emergency management to identify the specific needs of older adults during each phase of an emergency.


9. Comprehensive, all-hazards emergency preparedness requires the development and maintenance of emergency operations plans that address the needs of vulnerable older adults.

A. True

B. False


10. Basic cross-sector activities should include all of the following, except:

A. Identifying vulnerable older adults and other populations with special needs during an emergency.

B. Developing plans for risk communication.

C. Providing shelter.

D. Reintegrating displaced older adults back into their communities.


11. All emergency responders should have a basic understanding of the unique needs of vulnerable older adults in order to plan and care for them in an emergency.

A. True

B. False


12. The Older Americans Act requires state units on aging and area agencies on aging to create preparedness plans that include information on how jurisdictions will coordinate services for older adults, and also specifies how these requirements should be met.

A. True

B. False


13. Although federalism empowers government action at local, state, and federal levels, states have general police power during emergencies.

A. True

B. False


14. Most federal legal authorities address planning for special needs or at-risk populations using an all-hazards planning framework to address the specific planning and preparedness needs of vulnerable older adults.

A. True

B. False


15. Focus group members report that most people do not know how to prepare for emergencies.

A. True

B. False


16. The purpose of the Pandemic and All-Hazards Preparedness Act is to:

A. Identify the Secretary of Health and Human Services as the lead federal official for public health emergency preparedness and response and creates the position of Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response.

B. Improve the Nation’s public health and medical preparedness and response capabilities for emergencies, whether deliberate, accidental, or natural.

C. Provide new authorities for development of countermeasures and establish mechanisms and grants to continue strengthening the public health security infrastructure at state and local levels.

D. Permit the Secretary of Health and Human Services to require that entities receiving cooperative agreement awards describe how they will include SUAs in their public health emergency preparedness plans.


17. The core elements of public health legal preparedness for emergencies and other public health priorities include which of the following?

A. The need to ensure the presence of effective legal authorities to carry out essential public health services.

B. The need to establish and sustain the competencies of public health professionals to apply the laws.

C. The need to provide for coordination of law-based efforts across jurisdictions and sectors.

D. All of the above.


18. Governmental agencies at all levels can improve their legal preparedness for protecting vulnerable older adults by ensuring that key officials know how to apply legal authorities across jurisdictions and sectors.

A. True

B. False


19. An all-hazards approach to preparedness recognizes the full spectrum of hazards and potential events and includes planning for the more common problems that can occur during an emergency.

A. True

B. False


20. All of the following are covered entities under the HIPAA Privacy Rule, except for:

A. Health maintenance organizations

B. Health care clearinghouses

C. Centers for independent living

D. Nursing homes


21. Which of the following may result from intentional actions or may be unplanned, and is the type of emergency that has the potential to overwhelm medical and emergency response personnel and resources?

A. Pandemic

B. Natural disaster or severe weather

C. Mass casualty events

D. Bioterrorism


22. Competencies falls under which phase of emergency management related to protecting vulnerable older adults?

A. Preparedness

B. Response and operations

C. Recovery and transition

D. All of the above


Strategies and Options for Identifying Vulnerable Older Adults

23. Which of the following methods for identifying vulnerable populations for preparedness planning uses epidemiological data to plan the delivery of services, medications, durable medical equipment, and other materials needed to support this population during all phases of an emergency?

A. Characterizing the population

B. Geographic information systems

C. Building, using, and maintaining registries

D. Using shelter intake procedures to identify vulnerable older adults


24. Which of the following categories of information can help jurisdictions develop preparedness plans for older adults?

A. Demographic characteristics, including the number of older adults and their age, sex, and race/ethnicity, as well as the size and type of cultural subgroups.

B. Prevalence of chronic medical and behavioral health conditions, disabilities, and functional limitations.

C. Prevalence of chronic conditions that require specific medications, durable medical equipment, or special medical care.

D. All of the above.


25. Multi-tiered evacuations may be useful when officials know when a hazard is likely to occur.

A. True

B. False


26. In the context of emergency preparedness, the purpose of a registry is to identify, before an event occurs, those individuals who may need special attention or help before, during, or after an emergency.

A. True

B. False


27. Registries can be:

A. Based on the specific type of help a person needs.

B. Used for the broader purpose of identifying any person who might need any type of help during an emergency.

C. Used as a way to provide information to older adults on how to prepare for emergencies.

D. All of the above.


28. One way to identify areas of need in an emergency is to estimate the number of vulnerable older adults in a community and compare it with the number of potential caregivers.  This caregiver ratio index can help planning officials identify the resources available to meet the community’s needs and the gaps that may exist in an emergency.

A. True

B. False


29. Jurisdictions may be concerned about liability and about creating the expectation that, by enrolling an individual into a registry, help is guaranteed.  To address this concern, many jurisdictions require that registrants be fully informed about which of the following?

A. With whom the information will be shared.

B. The type of help that may be available.

C. Limitations on help.

D. All of the above.


30. When planning for older adults, officials must ensure that shelter facilities meet the special needs of this population by:

A. Being accessible to people who need help or certain accommodations to perform routine care or activities of daily living.

B. Being accessible to people who have certain disabilities, such as those who use a wheelchair.

C. Including energy sources for electricity, heating, and air conditioning.

D. All of the above.


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