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Juvenile Drug Treatment Court Guidelines

Conceptual Framework of the Guideline Statements

1. In which way do adolescents with substance use disorders differ from their adult counterparts, making them more susceptible to peer influences, victimization, and the adverse effects of substance use?

A. Concrete versus abstract reasoning.

B. Expansion of pain and pleasure centers in the brain after the maturation of the reasoning centers.

C. Smaller body size leading to higher tolerance.

D. Less experience combined with the willingness to take more risks.


2. Participants in the listening sessions emphasized that parents and guardians often feel they are seen as “bad parents” and are therefore not included in the decision-making process; they perceive their input is not valued.

A. True

B. False


Objectives and Guideline Statements

3. Training and technical assistance for the JDTC team members should focus on:

A. The nature of substance use disorders and the dynamics of recovery.

B. Staff skill development and effective case management.

C. Adolescent development and the developmental perspective for juvenile justice programming.

D. The nature of substance use disorders and the dynamics of recovery, staff skill development and effective case management, and adolescent development and the developmental perspective for juvenile justice programming are all among the items that should be focused on during training and technical assistance.


4. Eligibility criteria should include all of the following, except:

A. Youth with a substance use disorder.

B. Youth who are 12 years old or older.

C. Youth who have a moderate to high risk of reoffending.

D. There should not be strict eligibility criteria, as all youth should be accepted.


5. For each participant, the application of sanctions should equal or exceed the incentives that the JDTC applies with sanctions favored over incentives.

A. True

B. False


6. Which evidence-based substance use treatment is based on theories of classical conditioning that focus on teaching adolescents coping skills, problem-solving skills, and cognitive restructuring techniques for dealing with stimuli that trigger substance use or cravings?

A. Behavioral therapy

B. Cognitive behavioral therapy

C. Family therapy

D. Motivational enhancement therapy


7. A youth should be terminated from the program only after the JDTC team has carefully deliberated and only as a last resort after full implementation of the JDTC’s protocol on behavioral contingencies.

A. True

B. False


Objectives, Guideline Statements, and Supporting Information

8. Which of the following serves as the JDTC chairperson and has ultimate accountability and oversight for the team members?

A. The JDTC coordinator

B. The clinical treatment supervisor

C. The judge

D. The JDTC treatment provider


9. JDTCs should be aware of the risk associated with adolescent substance use disorder and that youth will return to the same environments they lived in before they were part of the JDTC.

A. True

B. False


10. In many jurisdictions, the partnership with the _____ may be the hardest to solidify of all the JDTC’s community partnerships.

A. Parents

B. Child welfare service

C. State

D. School


11. All of the following are key elements of a training curriculum for JDTCs, except for:

A. Motivational interviewing to facilitate engagement.

B. A holistic approach to the multidimensional problems of youth and families, leadership, and collaboration within the JDTC team.

C. Innovative strategies for prosocial development.

D. Defining the population.


12. A common predictor of program failure is:

A. Socioeconomic status

B. Poor school performance

C. Lack of parental support

D. Involvement with other troubled peers


13. It is important for the JDTC to strictly define “family” as the nuclear unit of parents and siblings.

A. True

B. False


14. Each JDTC must structure the use of sanctions and incentives so participants are not negatively affected if their family fails to engage or participate in the program, particularly if youth demonstrate a desire to cooperate and improve.

A. True

B. False


15. Clear evidence exists that family support is an important factor in successful graduation, especially among _____ youth.

A. Latino

B. African American

C. White

D. Asian


16. Youth who have a substance use disorder have lower rates for successfully completing JDTCs than those who use drugs or alcohol but do not have a substance use disorder.

A. True

B. False


17. For low-risk youth, juvenile justice interventions may at best have no effect and may even be harmful in that recidivism is enhanced.

A. True

B. False


18. Research from juvenile drug courts has shown that younger youth have higher success rates than older youth.

A. True

B. False


19. Although there is no evidence that youth that _____ are less likely to succeed, they are routinely excluded from participating in the JDTC.

A. Are homeless

B. Have committed violent offenses

C. Are LGBTQ

D. Have been the victim of a sexual assault


20. The risk principle encompasses which key strategy for practice?

A. Juvenile justice programming should target youth who are assessed as higher risk for reoffending, and those assessed as low risk should be diverted from the juvenile court process.

B. Higher risk youth should receive a higher level of treatment and programming.

C. Juvenile justice programming should target youth who are assessed as higher risk for reoffending, and those assessed as low risk should be diverted from the juvenile court process, in addition to higher risk youth receiving a higher level of treatment and programming.

D. All youth, no matter their risk level should be admitted into the juvenile court process and receive the same level of treatment and programming.


21. Formal processing through JDTC programs appears to reduce the _____ of subsequent delinquent activity.

A. Prevalence

B. Incidence

C. Severity

D. Formal processing through JDTC programs appears to increase the prevalence, incidence, and severity of subsequent delinquent activity


22. Placing low-risk youth in juvenile justice programs may disrupt the very factors that make them lower risk - their schooling may be interrupted, they may lose a job, and their positive relationships with family and peers may be disrupted.

A. True

B. False


23. The most effective early intervention programs use _____ format and generally include motivational interviewing and enhancement strategies.

A. An individual

B. A group

C. Individual and group formats are equally effective

D. Neither individual nor group formats are highly effective


24. Boys have a higher success rate than girls and are more likely to be rewarded and to graduate.

A. True

B. False


25. One of the key elements that separate the JDTC from other courts is the:

A. Motivational interviewing and enhancement strategy.

B. Personal relationship the judge builds with the youth.

C. Group therapy shared with peers in similar situations as their own.

D. Extra mentoring provided for school and job advancement.


26. What is the first key element of a procedurally fair process?

A. Youth and families must perceive that the judge is showing neutrality in making a decision.

B. The judge must show dignity and respect for the youth and families throughout the interactions in court.

C. The judge must intervene in ways that increase youth’s self-esteem.

D. Youth and families need to participate in the proceedings before the judge reaches a decision.


27. Sanctions applied inconsistently can actually reinforce undesirable behavior instead of diminish it.

A. True

B. False


28. JDTC programs typically do not address the symptoms of:

A. Antisocial behavior

B. Detrimental relationships with parents

C. Posttraumatic stress disorder

D. Depression and/or anxiety


29. Strict adherence to fidelity:

A. Increases parent engagement with the program.

B. Increases youth’s satisfaction with the program.

C. Increases parent engagement and youth’s satisfaction with the program.

D. Decreases parent engagement and youth’s satisfaction with the program.


30. Research shows that there should be _____ for every sanction.

A. 1 incentive

B. 2 incentives

C. 3 incentives

D. 4 incentives


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