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Evidence-Based Interventions for Autism Spectrum Disorders

Introduction: Chapter 1

1. Intervention decisions include consideration of:

A. Each individual’s unique presentation including specific strengths and needs.

B. Individual and family values and preferences.

C. Available family and community resources.

D. All of the above.

2. The weight of the evidence indicates that early identification and early intervention can maximize the progress of children with ASDs.

A. True

B. False

Evidence-based Intervention: Chapter 2 - Introduction

3. Current research demonstrates that ASDs are due to alterations in brain functioning and can only be diagnosed based on brain imaging.

A. True

B. False

4. Appropriate interventions can lead to positive effects by:

A. Making changes in the individual’s environment.

B. Adjusting how others interact with the individual.

C. Teaching new skills.

D. All of the above.

5. Intervention outcomes are significantly enhanced when:

A. Professionals collaborate across service delivery systems.

B. Parents play an active role in implementing and coordinating interventions.

C. Both (A) and (B).

D. None of the above.

6. Gaps in communication and lack of collaboration among providers and service systems consistently are identified as a source of significant confusion and challenges for individuals with ASDs and their families.

A. True

B. False

7. Because ASD interventions treat ASDs in general, rather than targeting specific needs or skills, whether an intervention is likely to be effective depends on the specific strengths and needs of the individual.

A. True

B. False

8. Individual characteristics that often are central to intervention selection include all of the following, except for:

A. The individual’s specific strengths.

B. The individual’s age.

C. The individual’s level of cognitive functioning.

D. The individual’s nature and extent of social impairment.

9. Many individuals with ASDs are highly sensitive to variation in their environments and may have pronounced reactions to seemingly trivial characteristics of the environment that can profoundly interfere with daily functioning.

A. True

B. False

Evidence-based Intervention: Chapter 2 - The Intervention Process

10. All individuals diagnosed with ASDs are assessed in which of the following domains?

A. Cognitive and academic functioning

B. Social, emotional, and behavioral functioning

C. Family functioning

D. All of the above

11. All of the following components of assessment are indicated in all cases, except for:

A. Cognitive examination

B. Oral-motor evaluation

C. Adaptive evaluation

D. Medical examination

12. _____ remains one of the strongest predictors of adaptive outcome for individuals with autism spectrum disorders across the lifespan.

A. Functional communication

B. Academic skills

C. Social skills

D. Skills to become valued, contributing members of society

13. Intervention planning is enhanced when attention is given to developing goals and objectives that have any or all of the following characteristics, except for:

A. Assessment data are used as a starting point or baseline from which goals are identified.

B. Goals are specific, measurable, and observable.

C. Goals state what the individual should do and should not do.

D. Goals are relevant to the individual, family, and community context.

14. The same focused intervention or combination of focused interventions may be applied to different skills or behaviors to address multiple goals.

A. True

B. False

15. It can be helpful to make judgements about the effect of each individual intervention when more than one intervention is used to address the same goal.

A. True

B. False

16. Informed professional judgment is important for which of the following?

A. Interpreting data

B. Weighing risks and benefits

C. Evaluating factors that might be interfering with an intervention

D. All of the above

17. Research has documented that families impacted by an ASD diagnosis often experience more stress, depression, and other negative health outcomes than parents of children with other disabilities.

A. True

B. False

Evidence-based Intervention: Chapter 2 - The Intervention Process Across Service Delivery Systems

18. Medications are frequently used:

A. For core symptoms of ASDs.

B. To reduce behavioral symptoms associated with ASDs.

C. Both (A) and (B).

D. None of the above.

19. Which of the following is often treatable with neuroleptic medication?

A. Mood Disorders

B. Anxiety Disorders

C. Psychotic Disorders

D. Aggression / Irritability

20. All of the following medications have strong evidence that support their use specifically for individuals with ASDs, except for:

A. Secretin

B. Risperidone

C. Aripiprazole

D. Methylphenidate

21. When irritability, aggression, or ADHD symptoms are present and left untreated, they may severely compound the functional impairments associated with ASDs, often in multiplicative rather than additive fashion.

A. True

B. False

22. Children with a medical diagnosis of an ASD are automatically eligible for services under Part B and Part C of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act.

A. True

B. False

23. Children who are eligible for special education in the Autism category must have a medical diagnosis of an ASD.

A. True

B. False

24. The type and amount of specialized instruction, programs, and services a child receives in the school setting are dictated by the categorical label under which eligibility is established.

A. True

B. False

25. Who determines if children are eligible for special education services?

A. Healthcare professionals

B. Educators

C. Both (A) and (B)

D. None of the above

26. Which of the following factors is considered when selecting evidence-based interventions?

A. The developmental age of the student and where the student functions with the greatest independence and learning efficiency.

B. Any past or current evidence-based interventions used by the family to address similar needs at home or in the community and the effectiveness of those interventions.

C. The environment in which the intervention(s) will be utilized.

D. All of the above.

27. In the educational setting, a student automatically qualifies for and receives services, including any specific type of special education services, based solely on a medical diagnosis of an ASD.

A. True

B. False

28. All of the following are true with regard to child-centered and adult-centered care, except for:

A. The child-centered system is based on family-centered practice.

B. Adult-oriented systems of care are typically one-to-one and problem focused.

C. There is more expertise in chronic childhood conditions.

D. Access to health insurance coverage is more variable in adult-centered systems of care.

29. Which of the following is a key component of successful healthcare transitions for adolescents and young adults?

A. Encouragement for the patient to take as much decision-making responsibility as possible at each developmental stage.

B. Practical information on available adult services.

C. Guidance on recommended adult health-care providers.

D. All of the above.

30. Under Section 504, there are no specific requirements related to transition or post-secondary transition planning.

A. True

B. False

Research Findings: Chapter 3 - Overview: Six Systematic Reviews 2009-2011

31. Structured teaching to enhance learning is an example of a focused intervention.

A. True

B. False

Research Findings: Chapter 3 - Effective ASD Interventions

32. Which of the following is based on environmental modifications?

A. Behavioral interventions

B. Medical interventions

C. Complementary and alternative medicine interventions

D. All of the above

Research Findings: Chapter 3 - Ineffective ASD Interventions

33. Which of the following was shown to be ineffective for the treatment of restricted, repetitive behaviors or irritability?

A. Secretin

B. Methylphenidate

C. Risperidone

D. Aripiprazole

Research Findings: Chapter 3 - Harmful ASD Interventions

34. If research shows that an intervention is harmful for the general population or another specific population, ethical researchers do not apply these harmful treatments to individuals on the autism spectrum just to show that they are also harmful to individuals with ASDs.

A. True

B. False

Research Findings: Chapter 3 - Description of Effective ASD Interventions

35. Which of the following interventions involve the modification of situational events that typically precede the occurrence of a target behavior?

A. Comprehensive behavioral intervention programs for young children

B. Structured teaching

C. Antecedent package

D. Prompting

36. All of the following are prompts, except for:

A. A verbal, physical, or gestural cue

B. Modeling a specific behavior

C. A pause while waiting for a child to respond

D. All of the above are prompts

37. Prompts need to be faded as quickly as possible after the child learns to respond in order to avoid prompt dependence.

A. True

B. False

38. Prompts proceed from most intrusive to least intrusive.

A. True

B. False

39. The goal of prompts is to teach the child to respond consistently to the instruction and not to depend on a prompt.

A. True

B. False

40. When a child is engaging in multiple behaviors, some good and some bad, _____ is used to selectively increase one or more desirable behaviors over a period of time.

A. The behavioral package

B. Differential reinforcement

C. Time delay

D. Stimulus control / environmental modification

41. In which of the following is each skill that the child needs to learn broken down into small steps and taught one step at a time?

A. Discrete trial training

B. The behavioral package

C. Stimulus control / environmental modification

D. Differential reinforcement

42. A teacher ignoring a student’s whining after whining was previously followed by the teacher’s attention to the student is an example of:

A. Discrete trial training

B. The behavioral package

C. Extinction

D. Stimulus control / environmental modification

43. Positive reinforcement occurs when a behavior is followed by the termination or withdrawal of a stimulus that causes the frequency of the behavior to increase in the future.

A. True

B. False

44. For an individual child, selection and use of a specific reinforcer must be validated as reinforcing for that child.

A. True

B. False

45. Repetitive motor movements that are nonfunctional are maintained by:

A. Attention

B. Sensory reinforcement

C. Escape

D. All of the above

46. Which of the following techniques are known to work best with individuals who are verbal and have higher intelligence?

A. Task analysis and chaining

B. Response interruption / redirection

C. Cognitive behavioral interventions

D. Joint attention intervention

47. Which of the following is an example of a joint attention interaction?

A. Pointing to objects

B. Showing items / activities to another person

C. Following eye gaze

D. All of the above

48. Teaching joint attention skills can begin as early as:

A. 2 years

B. 1 year

C. 9 months

D. 6 months

49. Early and greater acquisition of joint attention skills predicts better long range outcomes in treatment for children with ASDs.

A. True

B. False

50. Modeling is more effective with children who have already learned some of the steps in the specific skill being modeled.

A. True

B. False

51. Which of the following types of modeling is when the target behavior or skill is recorded from the perspective of the learner?

A. Point-of-view video modeling

B. Video self-modeling

C. Basic video modeling

D. Video prompting

52. The Picture Exchange Communication System is designed to teach functional communication to children _____ years old.

A. 10 - 21

B. 3 - 12

C. 4 - 8

D. 1 - 5

53. PECS is appropriate for which of the following children?

A. Those who speak ineffectively.

B. Those who have significant articulation problems.

C. Those who are poorly motivated to speak.

D. All of the above.

54. Which of the following is not one of the three skill areas required for successful self-management?

A. Self-regulation

B. Self-monitoring

C. Self-evaluation

D. Self-reinforcement

55. Even when they are able to communicate verbally, children and adolescents with ASDs often display poor ability to understand most of what is communicated during social conversation.

A. True

B. False

56. A structured work system visually communicates all of the following pieces of information to the learner, except for:

A. The tasks the learner is supposed to do.

B. How much work there is to be completed.

C. Why the learner needs to complete each task.

D. How the learner knowns he/she is finished.

57. Risperidone was shown to be effective in treating all of the following, except for:

A. Aggression

B. Anxiety

C. Hyperactivity

D. Irritability

58. Risperidone’s benefit in suppressing maladaptive behavior appears to be maintained for at least _____ following the initiation of treatment.

A. 6 months

B. 12 months

C. 18 months

D. None of the above

59. There is a high incidence of extrapyramidal symptoms with risperidone.

A. True

B. False

60. Yearly monitoring of lipids and fasting blood sugar is recommended for all of the following, except:

A. Methylphenidate

B. Risperidone

C. Aripiprazole

D. Yearly monitoring of lipids and fasting blood sugar is recommended for all of the above

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