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People Who Inject Drugs: Motivations, Initiations, and Socioeconomics

Physical pain is common and associated with nonmedical prescription opoiod use among people who inject drugs

1. The National Survey on Drug Use and Health’s data consistently show that opioids are the most common prescription drugs used nonmedically.

A. True

B. False


2. A general population survey show that more days with poor self-assessed physical health were significantly associated with:

A. Nonmedical prescription opioid use

B. Nonmedical use of sedatives

C. Both (A) and (B)

D. None of the above


3. All of the following were factors identifying patients in chronic opioid therapy at high risk for misuse, except for:

A. Back pain

B. Neck pain

C. Multiple plain complaints

D. All of the above were factors for misuse


4. NMPD among PWID has been found to be significantly associated with:

A. Self-reported bodily pain

B. Pain interference with activity

C. Hazardous use of alcohol, use of illicit substances, and active injection drug use

D. All of the above


5. Among HIV-positive patients, those who inject drugs have been shown to report more pain than those who do not inject drugs.

A. True

B. False


6. Based on the 10-point modified Brief Pain Inventory scale, compared to subjects reporting no pain in the past 24 hours, _____ have a statistically significant difference regarding NMPOU.

A. Those reporting average pain intensity at or below the median

B. Those reporting average pain intensity above the median

C. Both (A) and (B)

D. None of the above


7. It was shown that as pain duration increased, NMPOU increased.

A. True

B. False


8. Chronic pain among persons seeking opioid substitution treatment is most commonly located in the neck, back, and legs.

A. True

B. False


9. Self-medication of pain with heroin or prescription opioids, has been shown to be prevalent in _____% of PWID with moderate or extreme pain and associated with being denied prescription analgesics.

A. 33

B. 67

C. 98

D. 100


10. All of the following covariates were found to be positively associated with NMPOU, except for:

A. Opioid substitution treatment

B. Younger age

C. Use of street heroin

D. Unmet healthcare needs


History of medication-assisted treatment and its association with initiating others into injection drug use in San Diego, CA

11. Results suggest that among PWID, a history of MAT enrollment is associated with a _____% reduction in the odds of having reported initiating others into IDU.

A. 12

B. 29

C. 38

D. 52


12. Each year increase in age is associated with an increased risk of providing injection initiation assistance.

A. True

B. False


13. As association was found between a higher number of years since first injection and an increased risk of providing injection initiation assistance.

A. True

B. False


Socioeconomic factors associated with cessation of injection drug use among street-involved youth

14. Among adult populations of people who inject drugs, _____ has been associated with cessation of injection drug use.

A. Stable housing

B. Use of supervised injection facilities

C. Engagement with addiction treatment

D. All of the above


15. Among youth populations, _____ is a contributing factor to injection initiation.

A. Unemployment

B. Homelessness

C. Inability to access addiction treatment

D. All of the above


16. Youth who engage in risky income generating activities are known to be at increased risk for high intensity drug use.

A. True

B. False


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