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Human Trafficking for Child Welfare Agencies and Caseworkers

Human Trafficking and Child Welfare: A Guide for Child Welfare Agencies

1. The definition of labor trafficking in the Trafficking Victims Protection Act distinguishes between children and adults, which means that children do not have to encounter force, fraud, or coercion to be victims of labor trafficking.

A. True

B. False


2. All of the following are true with regards to persons under the age of 18, except for:

A. They must be compelled to perform commercial sex by force, fraud, or coercion in order for it to be considered a severe form of trafficking in persons.

B. “Survival” sex by a minor is considered sex trafficking.

C. Participating in certain types of pornography is considered sex trafficking of a minor.

D. A minor engaging in a sex act in exchange for money is sex trafficking.


3. Trafficking always involves transporting the victim across State, country, or other borders.

A. True

B. False


4. Several studies have shown that 50% to more than 90% of children who were victims of child sex trafficking had been involved with child welfare services.

A. True

B. False


5. A number of research and newspaper articles have pointed to the fact that traffickers target children in foster care because of their:

A. Need for money

B. Increased vulnerability

C. Lack of supervision

D. High rate of school absenteeism


6. Studies have identified all of the following mental health symptoms associated with trafficking, except for:

A. Posttraumatic stress disorder

B. Bipolar disorder

C. Obsessive-compulsive disorder

D. Dissociative disorders


7. Many foster families are unprepared to care for a child who has been trafficked.

A. True

B. False


8. Safe harbor laws generally attempt to do all of the following, except for:

A. Treat children as victims rather than criminals.

B. Divert children from the justice system to the child welfare or other system where they can receive services.

C. Petition the court to vacate or expunge criminal convictions that resulted from their trafficking situations or that occurred while they were trafficked.

D. Punish traffickers and those who seek out children for sex.


9. Training can help professionals understand that survivors of human trafficking are victims rather than criminals, which can influence the system response.

A. True

B. False


10. When developing service programs, or finding community organizations as referral sources, child welfare agencies should ensure they are:

A. Victim centered

B. Trauma focused

C. Victim centered and trauma focused

D. Any referral sources are better than none at all


Human Trafficking and Child Welfare: A Guide for Caseworkers

11. While some victims may be held by their traffickers by psychological means of control, physical restraints are far more common.

A. True

B. False


12. All of the following factors increase a child’s risk of being a victim of human trafficking, except for:

A. Involvement with the child welfare or juvenile justice systems

B. A history of running away

C. Identification as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender

D. Poor school attendance and/or grades


13. Caseworkers should remember that no child chooses to be exploited.  It is a situation into which they have been forced, coerced, or tricked.

A. True

B. False


14. Some children may develop an emotional connection with their traffickers, often referred to as trauma bonding or Stockholm syndrome.  This trauma bond may cause the victim to support or protect the trafficker, making it difficult for child welfare personnel, law enforcement, or other service providers to:

A. Assist the victim in escaping.

B. Assist the victim in receiving services.

C. Prosecute the perpetrator.

D. Trauma bonding may make it difficult for child welfare personnel, law enforcement, or other service providers to assist the victim in escaping or receiving services or to prosecute the perpetrator.


15. All of the following may make it difficult for youth who have been trafficked to obtain employment, except for:

A. Time conflicts due to school schedules.

B. Lacking legal work experience or not having acquired a high school diploma or GED.

C. Having been arrested for crimes committed while being trafficked, preventing them from passing background checks required for employment.

D. Victims of sex trafficking may have had the experience of making a large amount of money in a short time period and may not view the pay in an entry-level position as a viable option.


16. For many, having a mentor or someone who is willing and available to provide guidance over the long term is often essential to ensure that the youth is able to pursue a life away from trafficking.

A. True

B. False


17. Which of the following strategies to building trust and rapport is particular to working with children who are victims of trafficking?

A. Active listening

B. Being empathetic

C. Mirroring the terms used by the child

D. Do not speak negatively about the exploiter, with whom the child may still have a complex relationship


18. A study of youth in foster care who had run away found that youth typically run away because:

A. They want to be with family or friends.

B. They dislike their placements, often due to wanting more freedom, trust, respect, and fewer rules.

C. Youth in foster care typically run away because they want to be with family or friends or they dislike their placements, often due to wanting more freedom, trust, respect, and fewer rules.

D. It is unknown why youth in foster care run away.


19. Youth often do not feel supported by their caseworkers and believe that caseworkers should visit them more and take additional time to talk with the youth and understand their points of view, including why they may be displeased with their current placements.

A. True

B. False


20. Children are more likely to utilize all of the following services, expect for:

A. Services that are independently located so there is more privacy.

B. Services provided where the child is placed.

C. Services that are co-located with other services.

D. Children are just as likely to use one service over another, regardless of the service location.


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