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Health Factors Affecting Women of Color for Social Workers

American Indians and Alaska Natives

1. American Indians / Alaska Natives speak more than 200 distinct languages.  This diversity, coupled with their many small population groups scattered throughout the United States, has made it difficult to provide a uniform, readily accessible health care system.

A. True

B. False


2. Receiving health services via the federal government, as American Indians / Alaska Natives do because of treaty obligations, influences their ability to access and use health care services.

A. True

B. False


3. The Indian Health Service appropriates only _____ % of its annual budget to urban health programs, despite the fact that approximately 25% of all American Indians / Alaska Natives live in areas served by those programs.

A. 1

B. 3

C. 5

D. 10


4. Which of the following is the reason for urban American Indian women having both greater difficulties in obtaining access to prenatal care and less likelihood of getting such care than women of other racial / ethnic groups?

A. Lack of health insurance.

B. Long distances between facilities.

C. Opposition of their partners.

D. Lack of child care.


5. Which of the following is implicated in the high prevalence of obesity and related health problems and mortality among American Indians / Alaska Natives?

A. Poverty and unemployment have fostered welfare dependency and diets replete with government commodity foods, high in both fat and calories.

B. A sedentary lifestyle.

C. Sharp decreases in hunting and gathering.

D. All of the above.


6. Which of the following limit the ability of American Indian / Alaska Native women from receiving preventative health care for cancer and other medical conditions?

A. Education materials requiring high literacy levels are often provided to communities where literacy rates and reading comprehension levels are low.

B. Screening facilities are often located far from communities.

C. Mistrust of health providers and contemporary prejudice and miscommunication.

D. All of the above.


Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders

7. The major challenge faced by the health systems of all the Pacific territories is their need to provide services to a population scattered over many islands and many miles.

A. True

B. False


8. Like American Samoa, the hospitals and other facilities serving the Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas, the Marshall Islands, and the Federated States of Micronesia do not provide tertiary care.  Thus, patients needing specialized care must be referred off-island to get it.

A. True

B. False


9. Native Hawaiian women without health insurance may hesitate to use free screening services because they wish to avoid the shame of being negatively evaluated or discriminated against on the basis of their need for free services.

A. True

B. False


10. Which of the following inhibits the use of preventive health services for cancer and other conditions among American Samoans?

A. Education materials requiring high literacy levels are often provided to communities where literacy rates and reading comprehension levels are low.

B. Screening facilities are often located far from communities.

C. Traditional modesty and the reluctance to discuss personal issues.

D. Mistrust of health providers and contemporary prejudice and miscommunication.


11. Non-Hawaiian Pacific Islanders living in Hawaii often underuse the Breast and Cervical Cancer Control Programs likely due to:

A. Lack of awareness about the importance of screening.

B. Lack of health insurance coverage or the lack of resources for copayments if covered.

C. Lack of transportation to screening locations.

D. All of the above.


Hispanics or Latinos

12. Many Hispanic farmworkers live in unincorporated areas within 150 miles of the U.S.-Mexico border, often without:

A. Septic tanks

B. Sewers

C. Running water

D. All of the above


13. Due to lower income and educational attainment and very poor access to health care, Latino health outcomes are often much worse than those of white non-Hispanics.

A. True

B. False


14. Cultural mores that dictate that Hispanics should first try home remedies, seek the advise of family and friends, or engage folk healers before getting professional health care can build delays into the care-seeking process that may be costly in terms of either morbidity or mortality.

A. True

B. False


15. Even if Hispanic women know the risk factors for HIV / AIDS and want to engage in safer sexual behaviors, they could be considered immoral and promiscuous if they discuss condom use with their partners.  This concern may lead some women to forgo condom use rather than risk embarrassment and stigma.

A. True

B. False


Blacks or African Americans

16. The links of racial differences in health to black subpopulations are all of the following, except for:

A. Population-related genetic differences.

B. Intravenous drug use.

C. Living and working in hazardous environments.

D. Exposure to factors such as stress, discrimination, and racism.


17. The prevalence of hypertension among blacks varies with all of the following, except:

A. Skin color

B. Vitamin D status

C. Socioeconomic status

D. Psychosocial stress


18. Black women of lower socioeconomic status have been found to have higher infant mortality rates than do white women of lower socioeconomic status.

A. True

B. False


19. Which of the following have been associated with the greater incidence of low-weight infants born to black women?

A. Frequency of short intervals between pregnancies.

B. Stresses associated with the relationship with the father.

C. Failure to receive services such as childbirth education classes and prenatal care.

D. All of the above.


20. Eighty-eight percent of black women who were infected with HIV in 2010 reported injection drug use as the cause, while the remaining 12 percent reported contracting HIV from heterosexual contact.

A. True

B. False


Asian Americans

21. Many Asian American women believe that getting rest, eating right, and avoiding stress can prevent cervical cancer.

A. True

B. False


22. The high rate of Hmong women declining treatment is attributed to all of the following, except for:

A. Lower literacy and education rates.

B. Shame and embarrassment.

C. Linguistic and cultural isolation.

D. A greater focus on traditional healing rituals than on Western medicine.


23. Because of their religiosity, Cambodians are likely to confuse hallucinations with spiritual voices and not seek care.

A. True

B. False


24. Vietnamese often refer to the cervix and uterus interchangeably, which can create difficulties for patient-physician communications, especially for a physician who is unaware of such cultural norms.

A. True

B. False


25. Which racial / ethnic group are reluctant to make visits for routine or preventive care due to the idea of a visit to a medical professional for a checkup without getting prescriptions for medications does not live up to their expectations?

A. Chinese Americans

B. Japanese Americans

C. Korean Americans

D. Vietnamese Americans


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