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Health Consequences of Tobacco

Overview

1. More than 10 times as many U.S. citizens have died prematurely from cigarette smoking than have died in all the wars fought by the United States during its history.

A. True

B. False


2. The relative risk for dying from _____ among women 35 years of age and older is now higher than for men.

A. Lung cancer

B. Coronary heart disease

C. Stroke

D. All of the above


Section 2: The Health Consequences of Active and Passive Smoking: The Evidence in 2014

3. Beyond causing addiction, nicotine activates biologic pathways that are relevant to:

A. Fetal growth and development

B. Immune function

C. The central nervous system

D. All of the above


4. Evidence suggests that changes in the composition and design of the cigarette itself may have had some impact on the relative risk of lung cancer, as well as on the shift in the types of lung cancer occurring in the contemporary cohorts of smokers.

A. True

B. False


5. Smoking is a cause of all of the following types of cancer, except for:

A. Liver cancer

B. Colorectal cancer

C. Prostate cancer

D. Smoking is a cause of all of the above


6. Smokers who have been diagnosed with diabetes are at a higher risk for:

A. Kidney disease

B. Blindness

C. Circulatory complications leading to amputations

D. All of the above


7. Reducing the number of cigarettes smoked per day is just as effective as quitting entirely for avoiding the risks of premature death from all smoking-related causes of death.

A. True

B. False


8. The evidence is sufficient to infer all of the following, except for:

A. There is a causal relationship between exposure to nicotine and risk for cancer.

B. At high-enough doses nicotine has acute toxicity.

C. Nicotine exposure during fetal development has lasting adverse consequences for brain development.

D. Nicotine adversely affects maternal and fetal health during pregnancy, contributing to multiple adverse outcomes such as preterm delivery and stillbirth.


9. In cancer patients and survivors, the evidence is suggestive but not sufficient to infer a causal relationship between cigarette smoking and:

A. The risk of recurrence.

B. Poorer response to treatment.

C. Increased treatment-related toxicity.

D. All of the above.


10. The evidence is sufficient to infer a causal relationship between active smoking and:

A. The incidence of asthma in adolescents.

B. Exacerbation of asthma in adults.

C. Exacerbation of asthma among children and adolescents.

D. All of the above.


11. The evidence is sufficient to infer a causal relationship between maternal smoking in early pregnancy and:

A. Clubfoot

B. Gastroschisis

C. Orofacial clefts

D. Atrial septal heart defects


12. The evidence is suggestive but not sufficient to infer a causal relationship between smoking and erectile dysfunction.

A. True

B. False


13. The evidence is sufficient to infer that cigarette smoking is a cause of diabetes.

A. True

B. False


Section 3: Tracking and Ending the Epidemic

14. Eighty-eight percent of smokers started before _____ years of age.

A. 18

B. 16

C. 14

D. 12


15. Each year, for every adult who dies prematurely from a smoking-related cause, more than two youth or young adults become replacement smokers.

A. True

B. False


16. Youth who get the most exposure to onscreen smoking are about _____ as likely to begin smoking as those who get the least exposure.

A. 2 times

B. 3 times

C. 4 times

D. 5 times


17. In the United States, the prevalence of current cigarette smoking among adults has declined from 42% in 1965 to _____ in 2012.

A. 12%

B. 18%

C. 22%

D. 34%


18. Very small disparities in tobacco use exist across racial / ethnic groups or between groups defined by educational level, socioeconomic status, or region.

A. True

B. False


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