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Improving Goal Achievement Behavior in Adults with Limited Incomes

Introduction

1. Research suggests that self-regulation skills develop most rapidly in early childhood, but that they continue to develop and improve in adulthood and can be stymied by the experience of living in poverty.

A. True

B. False


Foundational Research Supporting The Framework

2. According to which theoretical perspective do people learn not only through their own experiences, but also by observing the actions of others, seeing the results of those actions, and replicating those actions?

A. Bioecological model of development

B. Social cognitive theory

C. External responses to behavior theory

D. Transtheoretical model


3. Setting and pursuing goals requires self-regulation.

A. True

B. False


4. During which stage of behavioral change do people start to realize their behavior is problematic and consider taking action to change it?

A. Action

B. Preparation

C. Contemplation

D. Pre-contemplation


5. When people believe the losses of changing outweigh the gains, they are characterized as being in the _____ stage.

A. Action

B. Preparation

C. Contemplation

D. Pre-contemplation


6. Which of the following has been linked to weakened self-regulation skills?

A. Orphanage rearing

B. Premature birth or complications during pregnancy

C. Prenatal alcohol exposure

D. Orphanage rearing, premature birth or complications during pregnancy, and prenatal alcohol exposure have all been linked to weakened self-regulation skills


7. Which of the following can lead a person to make short-term decisions that alleviate urgent needs but cause greater financial challenges in the long run?

A. Tunneling

B. Stress of living in poverty

C. Adverse experiences in childhood

D. Exposure to violence


Elements Of The Conceptual Framework

8. What is the first step on the pathway to the ultimate outcome of interest and provides the foundation for the framework?

A. Goal setting

B. Self-regulation

C. Readiness for change

D. Addressing barriers


9. Which of the following should be targeted for approaches to improving short- and long-term employment and self-sufficiency outcomes through goal attainment?

A. Self-regulation skills

B. The goal achievement process

C. The program context

D. Self-regulation skills, the goal achievement process, and the program context


10. All of the following are key components of executive function that support people’s ability to regulate their actions, except for:

A. Metacognition

B. Inhibitory control

C. Working memory

D. Cognitive flexibility


11. Emotion regulation helps people be conscious of other people’s feelings so they can decide how best to react to them, whereas emotional understanding allows people to react appropriately even in the face of stressful situations.

A. True

B. False


12. Research indicates that goal setting is itself motivating.

A. True

B. False


13. Which of the following allows people to stay focused on both the goal and the tasks required to reach it?

A. Motivation

B. Self-efficacy

C. Grit

D. Emotional understanding


14. Research suggests _____ governs grit and that people’s tendency to be “gritty” increases throughout their lives.

A. Effort

B. Ability

C. Both effort and ability

D. Neither effort nor ability


15. Which of the following can be threatened by a phenomenon called stereotype threat, in which culturally shared stereotypes suggesting poor performance by members of certain groups can, when made salient, disrupt the performance of an individual who identifies with that group?

A. Motivation

B. Self-efficacy

C. Grit

D. Emotion regulation


16. Research suggests that imagining a desired outcome is enough to make a goal achievable.

A. True

B. False


17. Goal setting, and in particular identifying action steps necessary to achieve a goal, involves all of the following, except:

A. Forward-thinking

B. Thinking in a logical manner

C. Multitask thinking

D. Thinking in an orderly manner to derive a solution to a problem


18. People are likely to be motivated to pursue their goals if conditions are structured to meet all of the following basic psychological needs, except for:

A. Significance

B. Competence

C. Autonomy

D. Relatedness


19. Which of the following is critical to reaching a goal?

A. Monitoring, which enables people to continually review their progress toward achieving their goals by completing specific tasks.

B. Reflection, which enables people to consider past actions and use what they learned from those actions to inform future ones.

C. Flexibility, which enables people to use new information about their achievements or challenges to adjust their behaviors in pursuit of better outcomes.

D. Reviewing progress, reflecting on what has happened, and then responding flexibly are all critical to reaching a goal.


20. The administrative requirements of some programs, including programs that seek to help participants set and pursue goals, may inadvertently impede participants’ progress by overwhelming their cognitive capacity.

A. True

B. False


21. Which of the following forms of psychotherapy is designed to change a pattern of thoughts, beliefs, or attitudes in order to change behavior and emotion?

A. Mindfulness

B. Cognitive behavioral therapy

C. Attention bias modification

D. Mental contrasting with implementation intentions


22. The process in which people consider all the reasons why their current situation does not match their desired future and why they have not yet achieved their goal is known as:

A. Mindfulness

B. Cognitive behavioral therapy

C. Attention bias modification

D. Mental contrasting with implementation intentions


23. Which interventions teach people to purposefully direct their attention to what is happening in the moment and to monitor their feelings without judgment, instead of defaulting to automatic or negative thoughts and behaviors?

A. Mindfulness

B. Cognitive behavioral therapy

C. Attention bias modification

D. Mental contrasting with implementation intentions


24. Which interventions are intended to increase tolerance for distress in order to prevent automatic reactions or behaviors without forethought?

A. Mindfulness

B. Cognitive behavioral therapy

C. Attention bias modification

D. Mental contrasting with implementation intentions


25. All of the following processes of change interventions are relevant to changing mind-set, except for:

A. Consciousness raising

B. Dramatic relief

C. Motivational scaffolding

D. Environmental re-evaluation


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