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Gambling Addiction

1. Episodes of gambling are linked to activation of the sympathetic nervous system and _____ release.

A. Dopamine

B. Cortisol

C. Serotonin

D. Endorphin


2. Neuropsychological studies have compared groups with gambling disorder and substance use disorders against nonaddicted controls, identifying _____ as a key shared marker.

A. Deficits in spatial working memory

B. A lack of inhibition

C. Impulsivity

D. Sensation seeking


3. Individuals with gambling disorder and _____ showed reduced recruitment of the ventrolateral PFC by choice feedback (both gains and losses) on a reversal learning task and reduced activation of the dorsomedial PFC during a response inhibition task.

A. Nicotine dependence

B. Alcohol dependence

C. Cocaine dependence

D. All substance use disorders


4. Existing studies point to trait impulsivity and poor self-control from as early as 3 years of age, predicting later development of gambling problems, as well as alcohol, nicotine, and marijuana misuse.

A. True

B. False


5. Behavioral data indicated an interaction effect such that males with gambling disorder were more motivated by financial reward but less motivated by erotic rewards.

A. True

B. False


6. Four independent PET studies have detected group differences in baseline dopamine D2 receptor availability in gambling disorder.

A. True

B. False


7. It is important clinically as proof-of-principle data that treatments for addiction need to induce reductions in naturally rewarded behaviors.

A. True

B. False


8. Which of the following accurately describes the “big win” hypothesis?

A. Financial gains promote straightforward learning acquisition.

B. Financial losses promote specific instances of learning that explains away the losses in a manner that does not erode the player’s belief in his/her ability to win.

C. The illusion of control of irrelevant features of a game that create a sense that one is developing some kind of skill over an outcome that is in fact determined by chance alone.

D. Many people with gambling disorder retrospectively describe receiving major payouts in the first few times that they ever gambled.


9. Gamblers are more risky and more confident when they:

A. Can make an irrelevant choice.

B. Can exert instrumental action.

C. Can make an irrelevant choice or exert instrumental action.

D. Features of gambling do not play a role in the gambler’s behavior.


10. Despite their objective status as losses, near misses have been reliably shown to increase the neural signal in brain reward circuitry, compared to full misses.  One region that is particularly sensitive to this effect is the:

A. Striatum

B. Anterior insula

C. Medial PFC

D. Amygdala


11. Impulsivity and neurocognitive sequelae are proposed to only be present in gamblers, with a high rate of overlap of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and antisocial personality disorder, through:

A. Straightforward behavioral conditioning.

B. Negative reinforcement to alleviate depression or anxiety.

C. Neurobiological changes.

D. The influential pathways model.


12. Some fMRI data suggest that patients with gambling disorder may process monetary rewards as if they were primary rewards.

A. True

B. False


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