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Fatherhood Re-Entry Programs - The Impact of Incarceration on Families

Executive Summary

1. All of the following were the core areas implemented by the programs interviewed, except for:

A. Responsible parenting

B. Healthy marriage

C. Economic stability

D. Literacy and basic mathematics


2. All of the following activities are included under economic stability, except for:

A. Assistance with child support modifications and payments

B. Workforce readiness and financial literacy classes

C. Vocational training and certification services and referrals

D. Transitional job opportunities


Introduction

3. Hispanic / Latino children and children from less economically advantaged neighborhoods suffer from higher rates of parental incarceration and are therefore disproportionately affected relative to other groups.

A. True

B. False


4. An incarcerated father’s family is at higher risk of financial and residential insecurity and instability than other families.

A. True

B. False


5. Children with a father in prison or jail are at higher risk for:

A. Academic problems

B. Mental health issues

C. Antisocial and criminal behavior

D. Children with a father in prison or jail are at higher risk for academic problems, mental health issues, antisocial and criminal behavior


6. Supporting the relationship and coparenting skills of fathers helps them learn to effectively interact with and support the primary caregiver / coparent of their children and maintain positive supportive relationships with their families, which can reduce the likelihood of reoffending.

A. True

B. False


7. Of the programs for incarcerated fathers that have been rigorously evaluated and shown to be effective, research proposed all of the following as promising practices, except for:

A. Use of theoretically driven models

B. Partnerships with public agencies

C. A diverse set of program delivery methods

D. The use of incentives


8. Which of the following is the best practice for working with low-income fathers?

A. Providing concrete opportunities to practice information taught in classes.

B. Using incentives to encourage participation.

C. Designing targeted and culturally specific curricula.

D. Best practices for working with low-income fathers include providing concrete opportunities to practice information taught in classes, using incentives to encourage participation, and designing targeted and culturally specific curricula.


9. All of the following are key factors that limited family engagement, except for:

A. Strained family relationships.

B. Lack of interest among family members.

C. Inability to arrange transportation.

D. Family members with needs that matched or exceeded those of the formerly incarcerated person and that the program could not address.


Activities and Services Implemented by the Programs

10. Responsible parenting activities sought to:

A. Remove or reduce barriers to family stability and reunification.

B. Prevent domestic violence.

C. Strengthen relationships and encourage effective coparenting between fathers and their coparents / partners.

D. Improve fathers’ employability.


11. Program staff consistently reported that _____ was a priority for participants.

A. Increasing financial literacy

B. Securing employment

C. Strengthening relationships with their coparents

D. Increasing and improving parent-child contact and communication


Implementation Methods and Approaches

12. The ability of the community-based nonprofit organizations to work collaboratively with correctional departments dictated how quickly they could enroll and serve participants.

A. True

B. False


13. One organization focused on serving the low-income population specifically through the lens of:

A. Faith-based services

B. Relationship strengthening services

C. Workforce development services

D. Domestic violence services


14. Program staff collaborated with organizations that referred potential participants to the programs and reported that they could more easily tap into additional populations served by their partners that they may not have otherwise engaged and mentioned there were no drawbacks to this approach.

A. True

B. False


15. Staff reported all of the following regarding the enrollment of fathers several months before release, except for:

A. It enabled them to offer services to and establish relationships with fathers that would ease the transition into their communities.

B. It made it easier for staff to provide the full suite of services.

C. It allowed them to coordinate and provide more prerelease activities such as curriculum-based classes and family activity days.

D. It required program staff to engage participants over a longer period of time, which was reportedly difficult for some participants who were not ready to engage in services designed for family reunification and community reintegration.


16. Limited prerelease engagement with fathers affected whether fathers engaged in the postrelease component of the program.

A. True

B. False


17. The reentry literature clearly suggests that prerelease services and engagement are associated with greater postrelease success.

A. True

B. False


18. Being in multiple institutional settings had the disadvantage of:

A. Programs were required to modify their activities to accommodate differences in institutional contexts.

B. Programs had to be flexible in their service delivery depending on different rules, policies, schedules, and accommodations in the different institutions.

C. All participants in the program did not have access to the same set of activities or services.

D. Being in multiple institutional settings did not have any disadvantages.


19. A natural advantage to programs that implemented activities in multiple offices in the community was an ability to:

A. Reach fathers in a larger geographic area.

B. Provide services close to where formerly incarcerated fathers lived and worked.

C. Reduce the barriers to participation in the program.

D. Increase their retention of fathers in program activities.


20. Program staff interviews suggested that programs overseen by a central program manager were more flexible and could be tailored to locally available resources, policies, and partners.

A. True

B. False


21. Participants assigned to a different case manager in the community had to develop a new relationship with program staff after their release, which the literature suggests is a particularly critical time for the reentry population.

A. True

B. False


22. Partnerships helped the programs provide services they were not allowed to offer through their grant but that are known to be essential for the reentry population, such as:

A. Housing assistance

B. Substance abuse treatment

C. Mental health treatment

D. Housing assistance and substance abuse and mental health treatment were all services helped by partnerships


23. An informal partnership allowed for:

A. Program staff to more easily document and agree to roles and responsibilities.

B. Programs to be easier and quicker to establish.

C. Programs to define and streamline service delivery processes.

D. Programs to hold organizations accountable to the agreed-upon services or activities.


24. The challenges regarding _____ included ensuring the missions of both organizations aligned and limiting scope creep.

A. Governmental partners

B. For-profit partners

C. Nonprofit partners

D. Ensuring that the missions of both organizations aligned and have limited scope creep are challenges for all partners


25. Based on the evaluation team’s observations, one disadvantage of using partners to provide core services was that it demanded effective coordination and communication between the two organizations.

A. True

B. False


Overall Implementation Challenges, Solutions, and Recommendations

26. Each program was designed to achieve all of the following complex and interconnected goals, except for:

A. Assist with child support orders

B. Reduce recidivism

C. Increase family functioning

D. Improve self-sufficiency


27. One of the programs developed a needs assessment based on _____ to identify participants’ reentry needs and help case managers prioritize the service needs most critical to their ability to reach self-sufficiency quickly.

A. Biological perspectives

B. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

C. Behavioral and emotional maturity

D. Cognitive abilities


28. Participants tended to prioritize attending parenting or relationship classes over anything else.

A. True

B. False


29. For practitioners seeking to fund, design, and implement fatherhood reentry programs, it is recommended to:

A. Be flexible and ready to adapt program offerings to meet participants’ needs and respond to changes in policy and context.

B. Be open to providing additional activities and services or prioritizing activities and services as needed.

C. Meet families where they are.

D. Practitioners should be flexible, be open to providing additional activities, and meet families where they are.


30. All of the following are hallmarks of effective partnerships, except for:

A. Building formal partnerships

B. Collaboration across systems and agencies

C. Resource sharing

D. Regular self-evaluation


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