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Ecological, Biological, and Developmental Studies of Self-Regulation and Stress

Introduction

1. Experiencing 4 or more adverse childhood experiences dramatically increases the odds of an individual:

A. Being a current smoker

B. Being obese

C. Having a history of attempted suicide

D. All of the above


2. In particular, caregiver support including warmth, responsiveness, and scaffolding is believed to serve a protective or buffering role for the impact of stressors on children.

A. True

B. False


3. Processes by which the body deploys resources to maintain “stability through change,” or in other words to withstand disruption, is known as:

A. Allostasis

B. The toxic stress response

C. Homeostasis

D. Hyper-stimulation


4. Which of the following stressor characteristics may be especially toxic?

A. Prolonged

B. Unpredictable

C. Frequent

D. Strong


5. Which part of the brain plays a central role in managing “executive functions,” which are considered to be an important aspect of cognitive self-regulation?

A. The amygdala

B. The prefrontal cortex

C. The basal ganglia

D. The hippocampus


Findings

6. Pathological levels of social aggression have been linked to disruptions in biological stress systems.

A. True

B. False


7. Long after an original stressor is taken away, exposure to high levels of stress can:

A. Distort rodents’ approach to problem-solving.

B. Interfere with a rodent's ability to successfully orient their behavior toward a goal.

C. Reduce a rodent's ability to engage with new or uncertain conditions.

D. All of the above.


8. There is evidence that stress may turn toxic for female rodents more quickly than for males.

A. True

B. False


9. The effects of different doses of stress hormones has been shown to vary based on underlying genetic differences in brain chemistry.

A. True

B. False


10. Acute sleep deprivation has been found to:

A. Predict impulsive responses to negative stimuli.

B. Reduce ability to recognize emotions in others.

C. Reduced ability to modulate emotional responses.

D. All of the above.


11. Sleep deprivation is associated with a lower willingness to take risk.

A. True

B. False


12. Structural differences have been observed in the brains of children whose parents report lower socioeconomic status.

A. True

B. False


13. Compared to infants whose experiences are more normative, infants react more emotionally to frustrating conditions whose prenatal and neonatal experiences indicate higher levels of physiological or environmental stress, such as all of the following, except:

A. Low birth weight

B. Preterm birth

C. Birth by cesarean section

D. Mother’s history of substance use during pregnancy


14. Those with a history of maltreatment or exposure to a parent’s intimate partner violence have been observed to be all of the following, except:

A. Less effective at social interactions.

B. Less effective at controlling their attention.

C. Less effective at regulating their emotions.

D. Less effective at planning.


15. Among low-income children, _____ has been found to predict emotion regulation and delay of gratification, which may also have a buffering effect against other stress.

A. Parental warmth

B. Parental emotional responsiveness

C. Parental support

D. All of the above


16. Which of the following may be particularly vulnerable to PTSD, with one review suggesting their risk of experiencing trauma is higher than that of other age groups?

A. Children

B. Adolescents

C. Adults

D. All of the above are equally vulnerable to PTSD


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