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Crime Deterrence in High-Risk Juvenile Offenders

Studying Deterrence Among High-Risk Adolescents

1. The negative correlation of crime and deviance with the risk or probability of being sanctioned, is known as:

A. Certainty effect

B. Detection probability

C. Risk perception

D. Threat of sanctions

2. Which of the following is considered part of the “sanction regime” in which offenders base their decisions to commit crime?

A. Risk of arrest

B. Likelihood of conviction

C. Costs of punishment

D. All of the above

3. Specific deterrence is predicated on the idea of vicarious learning.

A. True

B. False

4. It has been well established that the _____ of adolescents are comparable to those of adults by age 15.

A. Impulse control

B. Emotion regulation

C. Logical reasoning capabilities

D. None of the above

5. The majority of deterrence research indicates that the severity of the punishment, rather than its certainty, is the primary mechanism through which deterrence works.

A. True

B. False

6. If offenders either fail to perceive risk subjectively or act on that perception even if the subjective risks approximate actual risks, punitive policies will have a weaker deterrent effect.

A. True

B. False

7. Research on adult domestic violence offenders suggests that arrest acts as a deterrent to future violence among offenders with high stakes in conformity (married and employed), whereas it is criminogenic for offenders with low stakes in conformity (unmarried and unemployed).

A. True

B. False

8. An arrest will deter an individual only if:

A. The perception of the risk of detection must increase in response to an arrest.

B. The increased risk of detection in response to an arrest must lead to a reduction in the likelihood of reoffending.

C. Both (A) and (B).

D. Either (A) or (B).

9. The likelihood of offending for individuals at less than _____ of the risk continuum is relatively insensitive to sanction risk.

A. 30%

B. 50%

C. 60%

D. 90%

Psychosocial Maturity and Desistance From Crime in a Sample of Serious Juvenile Offenders

10. According to the conventional psychological view, desistance from antisocial behavior is the product of psychosocial maturation, which includes the ability to:

A. Control one’s impulses.

B. Consider the implications of one’s actions on others.

C. Delay gratification in the service of longer term goals.

D. All of the above.

11. If adolescence-limited offenders engage in antisocial behavior to appear and feel more mature, the genuine process of maturation should lessen their need to engage in antisocial behavior to achieve this end, thereby contributing to desistance from crime and delinquency.

A. True

B. False

12. Psychosocial maturity consists of all the following components, except for:

A. Temperance

B. Conformity

C. Perspective

D. Responsibility

13. Individuals show increases in which aspect of psychosocial maturity over time with the rate of increasing slowing in early adulthood?

A. Impulse control

B. Suppression of aggression

C. Consideration of others

D. All of the above

14. At which age does psychosocial maturation begin to slow down?

A. 18

B. 22

C. 25

D. 26

15. Offenders who desisted from antisocial activity during adolescence showed significantly greater growth in psychosocial maturity than those who persisted into adulthood.

A. True

B. False

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