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Common Comorbidities with Substance Use Disorders

Part 1: The Connection Between Substance Use Disorders and Mental Illness

1. Brain circuits that control executive functions such as decision making and impulse control are among the last to mature, which enhances vulnerability to drug use and the development of a substance use disorder.

A. True

B. False


2. Frequent marijuana use during adolescence can increase the risk of _____ in adulthood, specifically in individuals who carry a particular gene variant.

A. Depression

B. Anxiety

C. Psychosis

D. ADHD


3. All of the following statements describe epigenetic mechanisms, except for:

A. The environment causes long-term genetic adaptations, influencing the pattern of genes that are active or silent in encoding proteins.

B. The DNA sequence is altered in the process.

C. Modifications can be passed down to the next generation.

D. They can be reversed with interventions or environmental alteration.


4. Animal studies indicate that a maternal diet high in _____ during pregnancy can influence levels of key proteins involved in neurotransmission in the brain’s reward pathway.

A. Fat

B. Alcohol

C. Nicotine

D. Sugar


5. Higher levels of stress have been shown to increase activity in the prefrontal cortex and decrease responsively in the striatum, which leads to decreased behavioral control and increased impulsivity.

A. True

B. False


6. Varenicline increases smoking abstinence rates in people with schizophrenia with no worsening of psychotic symptoms.

A. True

B. False


7. Which of the following is one of the few treatments effective for individuals who meet the criteria for borderline personality disorder?

A. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

B. Dialectical Behavior Therapy

C. Exposure Therapy

D. Contingency Management / Motivational Incentives


Part 2: Co-occurring Substance Use Disorder and Physical Comorbidities

8. Substance use can diminish the effectiveness of medications for physical conditions.

A. True

B. False


Part 3: The Connection between Substance Use Disorders and HIV

9. Clinical research indicates that drug use and addiction may influence HIV and its consequences by:

A. Increasing viral load.

B. Accelerating disease progression.

C. Worsen AIDS-related mortality even among patients who follow ART regimens.

D. Drug use and addiction may increase viral load, accelerate disease progression, and worsen AIDS-related mortality even among patients who follow ART regimens.


10. Drugs can make it easier for HIV to enter the brain and trigger an immune response and the release of neurotoxins, which can cause chronic neuroinflammation.

A. True

B. False


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