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Co-Occurring Developmental Disabilities and Mental Health Problems

Introduction to dual diagnosis

1. The term ‘dual diagnosis’ describes a situation where someone has both a physical disability and a mental health problem.

A. True

B. False


2. Like mood problems, anxiety problems are less likely to be diagnosed if a person has a developmental disability.

A. True

B. False


3. People with a dual diagnosis:

A. Have complicated medical and psychiatric needs, yet are bounced from one service to another, with many services not understanding or helping them.

B. Can be over-medicated because they are “better managed” that way.

C. Are often denied places in housing services because “their needs are too complicated.”

D. All of the above.


4. Where would a person with a high severity of mental illness and a low severity of developmental disability most likely look for treatment?

A. Specialized developmental disability services.

B. Specialized mental health services.

C. Integrated care.

D. Primary health care providers.


5. Which of the following is not one of the five principles that guide how to care for people with dual diagnosis?

A. Mental health problems in developmental disability are uncommon and therefore under-identified.

B. Mental health problems in developmental disability are complex but understandable.

C. Mental health problems in developmental disability are challenging but responsive to care.

D. Mental health problems in developmental disability require responses that go beyond separate disability and mental health treatment.


Developmental disability

6. Developmental disabilities may:

A. Be genetic in origin.

B. Be caused by illness or injury prenatally or in childhood.

C. Not have a known cause.

D. All of the above.


7. Intellectual functioning, also called intelligence, refers to general mental capacity, such as all of the following, except:

A. Learning

B. Reasoning

C. Language and literacy

D. Problem solving


8. The skill of self-direction is which type of adaptive behavior?

A. Conceptual skill

B. Social skill

C. Practical skill

D. None of the above


9. Asperger’s disorder is different from classic autism because people with Asperger’s disorder:

A. Have difficulties with social interactions.

B. Have normal language and intellectual skills.

C. Display restricted, stereotyped patterns of behavior and interests.

D. All of the above.


10. People with FAS have specific facial features, growth features, and impaired cognitive functioning which can include problems with memory, learning, and attention.

A. True

B. False


Mental health problems

11. In general, the stress-vulnerability model holds that the greater the number of possible causes that are present, the greater the risk that a person will develop a mental health problem.

A. True

B. False


12. Just because people with developmental disabilities have physical brain structures and chemical processes that are different than a neurotypically developing person, does not mean that they might also be predisposed to having mental health problems.

A. True

B. False


13. Psychological risk factors that interact with life stressors and biological predispositions and reduce a person’s ability to cope with stressors and be resilient include:

A. Poor social skills

B. Low self-esteem

C. Poor problem-solving skills

D. All of the above


14. All of the following pertain to stress, except for:

A. Stress can cause mental health problems.

B. Stress can trigger mental health problems.

C. Stress can make mental health problems worse.

D. All of the above are true with regard to stress.


15. An emotional problem can turn into a mental health problem or psychiatric disorder.

A. True

B. False


16. “Threat talk” is a verbal behavior of which group?

A. Anxiety

B. Psychosis

C. Impulsivity

D. Mood


17. Those with generalized anxiety disorder often suffer from all of the following symptoms, except:

A. Insomnia

B. Headaches

C. Shortness of breath

D. Hot flashes


18. Which of the following is not one of the three major groups of symptoms related to bipolar disorder?

A. Mania

B. Hypermania

C. Hypomania

D. Depression


19. In a person with bipolar disorder, untreated manias often last between four and six months, whereas untreated depression usually last for two or three months.

A. True

B. False


20. All of the following are early warning signs of schizophrenia, except for:

A. Delusions

B. Withdrawal from regular activities and from family and friends

C. Problems concentrating

D. Lack of energy


How dual diagnosis affects family life

21. Which of the following is suggested as a way of supporting all children, including siblings of people with special needs, and maintaining a strong family life?

A. Have realistic expectations of the typical developing children.

B. Celebrate the accomplishments and achievements of all children in the family.

C. Encourage siblings to have interests outside of the family.

D. All of the above.


22. It is very important for parents to admit to themselves when they feel extremely tired, worn out, angry, or bitter.  Denying these negative emotions may seem to help in the short term but can lead to exhaustion, depression, isolation, and hopelessness.

A. True

B. False


Self-care

23. Which of the following is involved for a person to be able to soothe, relax, and calm themselves?

A. Knowing what kinds of thoughts and behaviors make them feel better or worse.

B. Coming up with a self-care plan that helps them to prevent or overcome the negative feelings.

C. Both (A) and (B).

D. None of the above.


24. Morality is defined as:

A. The ability to ask tough questions and give honest answers. It includes understanding, empathy, and a tolerance for ambiguity.

B. Acting on the basis of an informed conscience, a sense of obligation to contribute to the well-being of others.

C. The ability to separate oneself emotionally and physically from the source of pain.

D. The ability to take charge of a problem in a proactive way.


25. All of the following are characteristics of resilient people, except for:

A. The ability to be sensitive and compassionate without being assertive and emotionally tough.

B. High self-esteem.

C. A realistic and balanced awareness of their strengths and limitations.

D. A playful, lighthearted approach to life.


26. Self-compassion is about taking a gentle approach with oneself in the moment.  When we are not able to be compassionate to ourselves, we limit our ability to be compassionate to others.

A. True

B. False


27. Self-compassion is described as involving which process?

A. Self-kindness

B. Common humanity

C. Mindfulness

D. All of the above


28. Which of the following refers to the need for a balanced approach to negative emotions so that feelings are not suppressed or exaggerated?

A. Self-kindness

B. Common humanity

C. Mindfulness

D. All of the above


29. Acceptance and commitment therapy emphasizes the importance of either accepting or avoiding difficult emotions and experiences.

A. True

B. False


30. A self-care plan should address which of the following?

A. Caring for one’s own physical health.

B. Taking care of one’s own emotional health.

C. Taking care of one’s social needs and networks.

D. All of the above.


Navigating the treatment system

31. The treatment plans should include all of the following, except:

A. Identify issues and problems.

B. Preparation for hospital admission.

C. Outline short-term and long-term goals.

D. Establish approaches and interventions to meet the goals.


32. People look at how their background and their life experiences affect how they control their emotions during which of the following types of psychotherapy?

A. Cognitive-behavioral therapy

B. Social skills training

C. Dialectical behavioral therapy

D. Psychodynamic therapy


Medication

33. Which of the following reduce the effect of dopamine in the brain?

A. Antipsychotics

B. Anti-anxiety medications / sedatives

C. Mood stabilizers

D. Antidepressants


34. Smokers require lower doses of antipsychotics and benzodiazepines than nonsmokers.

A. True

B. False


Crisis and emergency

35. A ‘crisis’ is a situation that involves an immediate danger that the person will harm either himself or herself or someone else.

A. True

B. False


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