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Quantum Units Education

Clinical Supervision and Professional Development

Chapter 1

1. The first aim of clinical supervision is to:

A. Assist in the development of counseling knowledge and skills.

B. Ensure quality services and to protect the welfare of clients.

C. Provide alternative case conceptualizations.

D. Provide morale building, assess strengths and needs, suggest varying clinical approaches, model, cheerlead, and prevent burnout.


2. More than anyone else in an agency, supervisors can observe counselor behavior and respond promptly to potential problems, including counseling some individuals out of the field because they are ill-suited to the profession.

A. True

B. False


3. If one is a good counselor, they possess all the skills needed to be a good supervisor.

A. True

B. False


4. Resistance is:

A. An expression of ambivalence about change.

B. A personality defect of the counselor.

C. An expression of ambivalence about change and a personality defect of the counselor.

D. Neither an expression of ambivalence about change nor a personality defect of the counselor.


5. Even when dealing with defensive, anxious, fearful, or resistant staff, self-disclosure by the supervisor about experiences as a supervisee is never appropriate to use.

A. True

B. False


6. A beginning supervisor should commit all of the following to memory, except for:

A. The reason for supervision is to ensure quality client care.

B. Supervision is all about the relationship.

C. Culture should not influence supervisory interactions.

D. Be human and have a sense of humor.


7. Which of the following models of clinical supervision focuses primarily on the skills and learning needs of the supervisee and on setting goals that are specific, measurable, attainable, realistic, and timely?

A. Competency-based models

B. Treatment-based models

C. Developmental approaches

D. Integrated models


8. No matter what model of clinical supervision is adopted, it needs to be rooted in the:

A. Learning and developmental needs of the supervisee.

B. Specific needs of the clients that are served.

C. Ethical and legal boundaries of practice.

D. Clinical supervision, regardless of model, needs to be rooted in the learning and developmental needs of the supervisee, the specific needs of the clients that are served, and the ethical and legal boundaries of practice.


9. Cultural competence refers to the ability to honor and respect the beliefs, languages, interpersonal styles, and behaviors of individuals and families receiving services, as well as staff who are providing such services.

A. True

B. False


10. It is not appropriate for a supervisor to initiate discussion of issues of culture, race, gender, sexual orientation, and the like with the supervisee.

A. True

B. False


11. Which of the following is a passive type of discrimination?

A. Cultural destructiveness

B. Cultural incapacity

C. Cultural blindness

D. Discrimination cannot be passive


12. A supervisor can be held liable for damages incurred as a result of negligence in the supervision process.

A. True

B. False


13. Which of the following is an example of negligence?

A. Providing inappropriate advice to a counselor about a client.

B. Failure to listen carefully to a supervisee’s comments about a client.

C. The assignment of clinical tasks to inadequately trained counselors.

D. Providing inappropriate advice to a counselor about a client, failure to listen carefully to a supervisee’s comments about a client, and the assignment of clinical tasks to inadequately trained counselors are all examples of negligence.


14. Supervisory vulnerability increases when:

A. The counselor has been assigned too many clients.

B. When there is no direct observation of a counselor’s clinical work.

C. When staff are inexperienced or poorly trained for assigned tasks.

D. Supervisory vulnerability increases when the counselor has been assigned too many clients, when there is no direct observation of a counselor’s clinical work, and when staff are inexperienced or poorly trained for assigned tasks.


15. At the onset of supervision, supervisors should ask counselors if there are any duty-to-warn issues of which the supervisor should be informed.

A. True

B. False


16. When monitoring performance, a supervisor’s first step is to:

A. Evaluate the counselor’s progress in meeting organizational and clinical goals.

B. Design an Individual Development Plan with the counselor to promote skill development.

C. Educate supervisees in what to expect from clinical supervision.

D. Conduct a live observation with the supervisee.


17. Which type of evaluation is an ongoing status report of the counselor’s skill development, exploring the questions “Are we addressing the skills or competencies you want to focus on?” and “How do we assess your current knowledge and skills and areas for growth and development?”

A. Formative evaluation

B. Summative evaluation

C. Both formative and summative evaluations are ongoing status reports answering the questions of competencies and areas for growth and development

D. Neither formative nor summative evaluations are ongoing status reports answering the questions of competencies and areas for growth and development


18. Unannounced observation of the counselor’s work is the desired form of input for the supervisor.

A. True

B. False


19. Supervisors should routinely seek input from the clients as to the outcome of treatment.

A. True

B. False


20. Which of the following is the same as clinical competence?

A. Experience

B. Credentials

C. Academic performance

D. Experience, credentials, nor academic performance are the same as clinical competence


21. All of the following guidelines apply to direct observation in supervision, except for:

A. Simply by observing a counseling session, the dynamics will change.

B. The supervisor and the supervisee must agree on procedures for observation to determine why, when, and how direct methods of observation will be used.

C. As long as the client has given written consent for observation and/or taping at intake, they do not need to be notified of an upcoming observation by a supervisor before the observation occurs.

D. The counselor should provide a context for the session.


22. Risk-management considerations in today’s litigious climate necessitate that tapes be erased after the supervision session, as tapes can be admissible as evidence in court as part of the clinical record.

A. True

B. False


23. Videotaping may not be advisable when treating patients with:

A. Bipolar disorder

B. Paranoia or schizophrenia

C. Anxiety

D. Post-traumatic stress disorder


24. All of the following are advantages of live observation, except for:

A. It can alter the dynamics of the counseling session.

B. It allows for a true picture of the counselor in action.

C. It gives an opportunity to model techniques during an actual session, thus serving as a role model for both the counselor and the client.

D. It allows for specific and focused feedback.


25. For individual or family sessions, it is recommended that the supervisor sit:

A. Beside the client

B. Beside the counselor

C. Halfway between the client and the counselor

D. In a corner out of view


26. All of the following pertain to clinical supervision, except for:

A. Better self-understanding

B. Improved client care

C. Improved job performance

D. Enhanced proficiency in knowledge, skills, and attitudes essential to effective job performance


27. All of the following are signs of countertransference to look for, except:

A. Billing mistakes

B. Drowsiness during a session

C. Excessive sessions with a client

D. Mistakes in scheduling clients


28. Which form of supervision is not hierarchical and does not include a formal evaluation procedure, but offers a means of accountability for counselors that they might not have in other forms of supervision?

A. Peer supervision

B. Triadic supervision

C. Individual supervision

D. Intensive supervision


29. Which form of supervision is considered the cornerstone of professional skill development?

A. Peer supervision

B. Triadic supervision

C. Individual supervision

D. Intensive supervision


30. Supervisory documents and notes are open to management, administration, and human resources personnel for performance appraisal and merit pay increases and are admissible in court proceedings.

A. True

B. False


31. All of the following are advantages of written / file review in clinical supervision, except for:

A. An important task of a supervisor to ensure compliance with accreditation standards for documentation.

B. Enhances recall and reflection skills.

C. Provides a method of quality control.

D. Ensures consistency of records and files.


32. One of the most important administrative tasks of a supervisor is that of documentation and record-keeping, especially of clinical supervision sessions.

A. True

B. False


33. All of the following should be included in supervision session records, except for:

A. The supervisor-supervisee contract, signed by both parties.

B. A summary of all performance evaluations.

C. Progressive discipline steps taken.

D. Alterations in the record after the fact or premature destruction of supervision records.


Chapter 2

34. All of the following are ways to help counselors and clients become comfortable with live observation, except for:

A. Acknowledging and understanding the clients’ and/or counselors’ anxiety about observation or taping.

B. Feelings of anxiety are common and should be ignored.

C. Keep the door open with the clients and counselors to continue to address their concerns and feelings as part of their normal clinical and supervisory process.

D. Help the counselor to allay clients’ anxiety or concerns by coaching the counselor through methods for presenting the direct observation methods to the client.


35. Because a client has signed an informed consent that discusses the possibility of direct observation by supervisors, the client cannot decline that aspect of the treatment.

A. True

B. False


36. Since a supervisor should never ask a staff member to do something they themselves are unwilling to do, it would be helpful for the supervisor to:

A. Be the first to be taped or observed.

B. Be open to feedback from staff, setting the tone of acceptance and vulnerability to feedback.

C. Model acceptance by committing to trying out suggestions in future counseling sessions.

D. A supervisor should be the first to be taped or observed, be open to feedback from staff, and should model acceptance by committing to trying out suggestions in future counseling sessions.


37. A master supervisor works with the resistance from staff by taking it head-on.

A. True

B. False


38. To prevent the supervisor from becoming the counselor’s counselor and turning supervision into therapy, the key question the supervisor needs to return to is:

A. Are we addressing the skills or competencies the counselor wants to focus on?

B. How to assess the counselor’s current knowledge and skills and areas for growth and development?

C. How is this personal issue affecting the counselor’s job performance?

D. What factors are important in treatment an clinical supervision?


39. All of the following pertain to supervision, except for:

A. The goal is to make the counselor a better counselor.

B. The focus of exploration is on the origins and manifestations of cognitions, affects, and behaviors associated with life issues and how these issues can be resolved.

C. It requires monitoring of client care and facilitating professional training.

D. The focus is on how issues may affect client care, the conceptualization of the client problems and counseling process, and accomplishment of client goals.


40. The worst mistake a new supervisor that was promoted from within can make is to try to take the reins of leadership abruptly and without consideration of staff reaction to their promotion.

A. True

B. False


Part 2: A Guide for Administrators

41. Supervision by trained and qualified supervisors:

A. Is an essential tool in the recruitment and retention of personnel, as counselors often rate training and development as critical factors in their selection of employment.

B. Has been shown to improve staff morale and motivation by making staff feel valued and appreciated.

C. Assists in promoting counselor wellness, and promotes the overall development of the substance abuse treatment field by upgrading the credentials, knowledge, skills, and attitudes of personnel.

D. Supervision by trained and qualified supervisors is an essential tool in the recruitment and retention of personnel, as counselors often rate training and development as critical factors in their selection of employment, has been shown to improve staff morale and motivation by making staff feel valued and appreciated, and assists in promoting counselor wellness, and promotes the overall development of the substance abuse treatment field by upgrading the credentials, knowledge, skills, and attitudes of personnel.


42. To save time and resources, to any extent possible, administrative supervision should be combined with clinical supervision.

A. True

B. False


43. The importance of which step cannot be overemphasized when implementing and phasing a clinical supervision system into existing processes?

A. It needs to be clear as to the organization’s goals of supervision, viewing supervision as a way of supporting and reaching the agency’s mission.

B. An all-staff meeting should feature the organization’s view of clinical supervision and how it will implement the supervision system.

C. A clear statement of support from senior administration be provided both verbally and in writing to all levels of administration, counselors, and support staff, which should provide a rationale for implementing clinical supervision.

D. Supervisors should prioritize discussing the supervisory agreement or contract with each supervisee and invest time to determine the training needs and goals for each counselor.


44. It is essential that the supervisor observe the counselor in action before rating her or his abilities.

A. True

B. False


45. One of the primary purposes of documentation is to serve as the legal record for the delivery of supervision: a reasonable effort was made to supervise.

A. True

B. False


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