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The Effects of Child Maltreatment on Brain Development

1. Higher function brain regions involved in regulating emotions, language, and abstract thought grow rapidly in the first _____ of life.

A. 6 months

B. Year

C. 3 years

D. 6 years


2. The specific effects of maltreatment may depend on which of the following factors?

A. The age of the child at the time of the maltreatment.

B. Whether the maltreatment was a one-time incident or chronic.

C. Whether the child had a dependable nurturing individual in his or her life.

D. All of the above.


3. Maltreated children and adolescents tend to have decreased volume in the _____, which is responsible for arousal, emotion, and higher cognitive ability.

A. Hippocampus

B. Corpus callosum

C. Cerebellum

D. Prefrontal cortex


4. Which of the following tend to have lower than normal morning cortisol levels coupled with flatter release levels throughout the day?

A. Maltreated children in institutional and family settings.

B. Nonmaltreated children.

C. Children in foster care who experienced severe emotional maltreatment.

D. Both (A) and (C).


5. Higher cortisol levels can do all of the following, except:

A. Harm cognitive processes

B. Affect socialization

C. Subdue immune and inflammatory reactions

D. Heighten the risk for affective disorder


6. In studying individuals with PTSD, those who had been maltreated as children exhibited more epigenetic changes in genes associated with central nervous system development and immune system regulation than nonmaltreated individuals with PTSD.

A. True

B. False


7. Maltreatment can affect connectivity between the amygdala and hippocampus, which can then initiate the development of all of the following by late adolescence, except for:

A. Anxiety

B. Depression

C. Aggression

D. Maltreatment can initiate all of the following by late adolescence


8. The brain alterations caused by a toxic stress response can result in:

A. Lower achievement

B. Intellectual impairment

C. Weakened ability to maintain attention

D. All of the above


9. Neglected children often do not show the rapid growth that normally occurs in language development at 18 - 24 months.

A. True

B. False


10. An underdeveloped _____ can lead to increased impulsive behavior, as well as difficulties with tasks that require higher-level thinking and feeling.

A. Cortex

B. Hippocampus

C. Corpus callosum

D. Cerebellum


11. Because brain functioning is altered by repeated experiences that strengthen and sensitize neuronal pathways, interventions should continue on a long-term basis and be limited to weekly therapy appointments.

A. True

B. False


12. Abused or neglected children may:

A. Be unable to control their emotions and have frequent outbursts.

B. Be quiet and submissive.

C. Have unusual eating or sleeping behaviors.

D. All of the above.


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