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Breastfeeding: Influence on Socio-Emotional Development

Introduction

1. Which of the following neural outcomes is facilitated by the duration of EBF experience?

A. Total brain volume

B. Cortical thickness

C. White matter volume

D. All of the above


2. Longer EBF predicted better recognition of happy facial expressions.

A. True

B. False


Discussion

3. Infants with a high duration of EBF showed a significantly lower late Negative central component to happy body expressions than those with a short duration of EBF.

A. True

B. False


4. Infants who were exclusively breastfed for above _____ days showed a positivity bias in their ERP responses, while infants who were exclusively breastfed for a short duration showed a negativity bias in their ERP responses.

A. 65

B. 108

C. 152

D. 183


5. Genetic differences in the _____ system have been found to give rise to morphometric alterations in healthy human adults particularly in limbic regions including the hypothalamus, amygdala, and ACC.

A. Oxytocin

B. Norepinephrine

C. Estrogen

D. Human growth hormone


6. The infant Nc is believed to arise from frontal cortical regions, and in particular, the:

A. Hypothalamus

B. Amygdala

C. ACC

D. All of the above


7. Infants’ responsiveness to emotional information varies as a function of their breastfeeding experience and biases towards positive and negative information are linked to the duration of EBF.

A. True

B. False


8. Maternal behavior can program stable changes in gene expression and neurobiological functioning that provide the basis for individual differences in socio-emotional behavior of offspring.

A. True

B. False


9. Breastfeeding does which of the following in the maternal brain?

A. Reduces HPA axis activity and decreases activation of several limbic regions.

B. Reduces HPA axis activity and increases activation of several limbic regions.

C. Increases HPA axis activity and increases activation of several limbic regions.

D. Increases HPA axis activity and decreases activation of several limbic regions.


10. Breastfeeding involves skin-to-skin contact and pleasant touch, which has been found to influence:

A. Emotion regulation

B. Attention

C. Pain analgesia

D. All of the above


11. Infants who had been exclusively breastfed longer showed an increased neural sensitivity to _____ body expressions.

A. Positive / happy

B. Negative / fearful

C. Both (A) and (B)

D. None of the above


12. Infants who had less EBF experience showed:

A. A decreased neural sensitivity to negative / fearful body expressions.

B. An increased neural sensitivity to negative / fearful body expressions.

C. A decreased neural sensitivity to positive / happy body expressions.

D. An increased neural sensitivity to positive / happy body expressions.


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