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Supporting Brain Development in Traumatized Youth

1. Brain imaging studies of children with documented cases of maltreatment reveal distinct changes in the brain’s:

A. Structure

B. Functioning

C. Both (A) and (B)

D. None of the above


2. Which of the following correlations between childhood abuse and neglect and altered brain functioning have been found?

A. The area of the brain associated with executive functioning and planning, the prefrontal cortex, shows correspondingly smaller amounts of gray and white matter in youth who were studied for their reported experiences with childhood trauma compared with those who did not report such experiences.

B. The region of the brain associated with learning, the hippocampus region, is smaller in individuals reporting early exposure to trauma.

C. The brain’s emotional reaction center associated with behavioral functioning and survival instincts, the amygdala, shows correspondingly increased reactivity with higher reported exposure to trauma during infancy and early childhood.

D. All of the above.


3. Home visiting programs teach caregivers specific parenting skills and have been linked with reduced stress in the family environment.

A. True

B. False


4. Healthcare professionals can help parents and caregivers by talking with them about which child development topic?

A. Important developmental milestones.

B. How each child has a different timetable for reaching developmental milestones.

C. How quality interaction with the child can enhance his or her development.

D. All of the above.


5. How can healthcare professionals working with young people create opportunities to engage in trauma-informed practice and provide supports that may help reverse the harmful impacts of prior trauma?

A. Develop an understanding of trauma and its impact on child and youth development.

B. Recognize that youth cannot be traumatized by the systems and services designed to help them.

C. Both (A) and (B).

D. None of the above.


6. According to the Early Childhood Technical Assistance Center, early intervention services result in greater developmental progress of participating children across all of the following outcomes, except for:

A. Social relationships

B. Survival instincts

C. The use of knowledge and skills

D. Taking action to meet needs


7. Children’s stress responses have been shown to not fully return to normal even through relationships with supportive and responsive caregivers and high-quality early education services.

A. True

B. False


8. When parental or primary caregiver stress and unresolved trauma from the parent’s childhood are a factor in parent / caregiver and child well-being, treatment may be necessary for both children and guardians.

A. True

B. False


9. Studies of which intervention have shown to be successful in reducing a child’s stress hormones?

A. Attachment and biobehavioral catchup

B. Child-parent psychotherapy

C. Parent-child interaction therapy

D. All of the above


10. Which intervention is designed to repair trust in the relationship between the child and primary caregiver through restoring the child’s sense of safety and building the primary caregiver’s sense of competence in parenting skills?

A. Attachment and biobehavioral catchup

B. Child-parent psychotherapy

C. Parent-child interaction therapy

D. All of the above


11. Which intervention takes place through the active coaching of primary caregivers during caregiver-child play sessions?

A. Attachment and biobehavioral catchup

B. Child-parent psychotherapy

C. Parent-child interaction therapy

D. All of the above


12. Integrative treatment of complex trauma enlists the family, neighborhood, school, and community in meeting a child’s needs and recognizing his or her strengths and weaknesses.

A. True

B. False


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