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Biology of Aging

What is Aging?

1. Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA) findings suggest that significant changes in personality are not due to normal aging, but instead may be early signs of disease or dementia.

A. True

B. False


2. Around the age of ______ lung tissue starts to lose elasticity and the muscles of the rib cage slowly begin to shrink.

A. 50

B. 40

C. 30

D. 20


Living Long and Well

3. Which of the following is NOT one of the factors that scientists generally look for when measuring lifespan?

A. Genes

B. Environment

C. Personality traits

D. Behavioral traits


Uncovering Family Secrets To A Long Life

4. Most of what we know about factors that can contribute to a long lifespan and health span is based on family studies.

A. True

B. False


Is What's Good For Mice Good For Men?

5. Although data from animal studies provide critical insights to the aging process and can form the basis for testing potential interventions, direct testing in humans is essential before an intervention can be considered safe and effective.

A. True

B. False


Genetics

6. Scientists use a ____________________ approach to look for genes in humans that serve similar functions in the body as genes already associated with aging in animal models.

A. Comparative biology

B. Candidate gene

C. Genome-wide association

D. None of the above


Pathways of Longevity Genes

7. A recent report suggests that people with a mutation related to the sirtuin cell pathway may have less risk of developing diabetes and cancer.

A. True

B. False


Epigenetics

8. Epigenetics research looks at how your environment, over time, can affect how your genes work and influence your _______________, health, and aging.

A. Disease risk

B. Quality of life

C. Growth

D. Development


What Happens When DNA Becomes Damaged?

9. Each of the following is a correct statement about cell senescence, cancer, and aging EXCEPT:

A. When we are young, cell senescence may be critical in helping to suppress cancer

B. Senescence makes the cell stop replicating when its telomeres become too long or when the cell cannot repair other damage to its DNA.

C. Senescence prevents severely damaged cells from producing abnormal and perhaps cancerous daughter cells

D. Later in life, cell senescence may actually raise the risk of cancer by releasing certain molecules that make the cells more vulnerable to abnormal function


Stem Cells & Regenerative Medicine

10. Potential for stem cell regenerative treatment has been demonstrated in research with mice in the areas of infertility and muscle tissue damage, and in humans with severe eye burns.

A. True

B. False


Metabolism

11. Everyday metabolic activities that sustain life also create “metabolic stress” which, over time, results in damage to our bodies.

A. True

B. False


Stress

12. Cells in our bodies use amphipathic lipids to counteract damage from oxygen free radicals.

A. True

B. False


13. Scientists have found that the stress response from age-related damage to DNA and proteins is partially responsible for deterioration.

A. True

B. False


Does How Much You Eat Affect Long You Live?

14. Which of the following is NOT one of findings of calorie restriction studies in animals and humans?

A. Monkeys who were fed a calorie-restricted diet had a notably decreased and/or delayed onset of age-related diseases, compared to the control group of “normal” eaters

B. In studies of non-laboratory (wild) mice, researchers found that on average, calorie restriction did not have any effect on lifespan and some of the calorie-restricted mice actually lived shorter than average lives

C. Looking at 42 closely related strains of laboratory mice, researchers found that only about a fourth of the strains on a calorie-restricted diet had an increase in longevity

D. Human participants in a 2002 study had, after 1 year, lowered their fasting glucose, total cholesterol, core body temperature body weight and fat


Immune System

15. Research has shown that, with age, innate immune cells lose some of their ability to communicate with each other which makes it difficult for the cells to react adequately to potentially harmful germs.

A. True

B. False


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