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Impact of Anxiety on Cognition

Introduction

1. Anxiety can be:

A. Maladaptive

B. Adaptive

C. Both (A) and (B)

D. None of the above


Defining Cognition and Anxiety

2. Fear and anxiety are dissociable at which level?

A. Behavioral

B. Neural

C. Pharmacological

D. All of the above


Sensory-Perceptual Processing

3. Sensory-perceptual processing is the most basic level, and the foundation of all other cognitive processing.

A. True

B. False


4. Evidence suggests that cortical involvement precedes anxiety-enhanced sensory-perceptual processing.

A. True

B. False


5. Anxiety states appear to fundamentally alter central sensory pathways and profoundly shape top-down signaling to enhance the detection of even slight changes in the environment.

A. True

B. False


6. It is well-established that startle responses are diminished when a weak, non-startling stimulus precedes the startling stimulus by a short interval.

A. True

B. False


7. Threat-induced anxiety:

A. Boosts sensory-perceptual processing in general.

B. Selectively improves the processing of extrinsically salient stimuli.

C. Selectively improves the processing of intrinsically salient stimuli.

D. All of the above.


Attention / Control

8. All of the following are “hot” cognitive functions, except for:

A. Non-emotional conflict

B. Attentional bias

C. Emotional interference

D. All of the above are “hot” cognitive functions


9. Deficits in attentional control have been reported in all of the following, except for:

A. Anxiety induced by threat of shock.

B. Clinical anxiety.

C. Dispositional anxiety.

D. Deficits in attentional control have been reported in all of the above.


10. Which of the following is associated with enhanced interference?

A. Clinical levels of anxiety.

B. Dispositional levels of anxiety.

C. Both (A) and (B).

D. None of the above.


11. There is substantial evidence that biases are not inflexible, but are, in fact, very plastic and strongly influenced by environmental stressors.

A. True

B. False


12. Which of the following is associated with impaired conflict adaptation?

A. Behavioral inhibition.

B. Generalized anxiety disorder and panic disorder.

C. High trait anxiety.

D. All of the above.


Memory

13. Anxiety induced by unpredictable threat of shock has a selective effect on memory that is dependent on:

A. Modality

B. Difficulty

C. Task type

D. All of the above


14. Findings suggest that baseline anxiety may have an impact on short-term memory processing efficiency and accuracy.

A. True

B. False


15. Which of the following cognitive load verbal working memory tasks are impaired by threat of shock?

A. High

B. Low

C. Both (A) and (B)

D. None of the above


16. Which of the following are unaffected by anxiety induced by threat of shock?

A. Working memory capacity tests.

B. Performance accuracy.

C. Both (A) and (B).

D. None of the above.


17. Anxiety-provoking context during episodic memory _____ is detrimental.

A. Formation

B. Retrieval

C. Both (A) and (B)

D. None of the above


18. Individuals with _____ tend to have better recall of threatening information.

A. Clinical anxiety

B. High dispositional anxiety

C. Both (A) and (B)

D. None of the above


Executive Function

19. Anxiety induced by threat of shock has been shown to induce premature responding (before all options are presented) in decisions where options are revealed sequentially, but the opposite pattern (increased response time) is seen when subjects are asked to make decisions on a trial to trial basis.

A. True

B. False


20. Reduced risk avoidance has been shown following speech stressors, with slightly improved decision-making seen in anxious males and impaired decision-making restricted to anxious females.

A. True

B. False


21. Which of the following promote harm avoidant, loss averse, decision-making?

A. Speech anxiety and translational threat of shock.

B. Translational threat of shock and anxiety disorders.

C. Dispositional anxiety and speech anxiety.

D. Anxiety disorders and dispositional anxiety.


22. In healthy individuals undergoing anxiety induction, the task is unrelated to their anxiety, whereas in a person with an anxiety disorder, the anxiety and task are contextually linked.

A. True

B. False


The Impact of Threat of Shock on Cognition

23. Threat of shock does which of the following?

A. Facilitates early sensory-perceptual processing of neutral stimuli.

B. Improves the detection of negative information.

C. Facilitates resolution of conflict.

D. All of the above.


24. Threat of shock affects the balance between stimulus-driven and goal-directed behaviors, such that performance is improved when emotional information is task-relevant but impaired when it is task-irrelevant.

A. True

B. False


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