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Antibiotic Resistance Threats in the United States

The Threat of Antibiotic Resistance

1. Which of the following germs is considered an "urgent threat" by the CDC?

A. Candida auris (C. auris)

B. Multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa)

C. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

D. Azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus)


2. Antibiotic-resistant germs can share their ability to become resistant with other germs that have not been exposed to antibiotics.

A. True

B. False


3. A fellow health care professional has questions regarding antibiotic resistance. Which of the following informational points of interest should be communicated to the health care professional?

A. When antibiotic resistance occurs, a germ is killed by a drug.

B. When antibiotic resistance occurs, a germ is killed by a drug but continues to grow.

C. When antibiotic resistance occurs, a germ is not killed by a drug; however, the germ cannot continue to grow.

D. When antibiotic resistance occurs, a germ is not killed by a drug and continues to grow.


4. Which of the following statements is most accurate?

A. Antibiotic stewardship may refer to efforts made to improve the way antibiotics are prescribed and used.

B. Antibiotic stewardship may refer to efforts made to increase the use of antibiotics.

C. Antibiotic stewardship may refer to efforts made to reduce susceptible infections.

D. Antibiotic stewardship may refer to efforts made to reduce susceptible infections in patients over the age of 65.


5. Which of the following statements is most accurate?

A. Antibiotic-resistant germs can only spread between people with symptoms of infection.

B. Antibiotic-resistant germs can only spread between people without symptoms of infection.

C. Antibiotic-resistant germs can spread between people with and without symptoms of infection.

D. Antibiotic-resistant germs cannot spread between people with and without symptoms of infection.


6. A fellow health care professional has questions regarding the PCV13 vaccine. Which of the following informational points of interest should be communicated to the health care professional?

A. The PCV13 vaccine protects people from 13 types of pneumococcus.

B. The PCV13 vaccine protects people from 23 types of pneumococcus.

C. The PCV13 vaccine protects people from 23 types of pneumococcus; however it should not be administered to individuals over the age of 65.

D. The PCV13 vaccine does not protect people from pneumococcus.


7. Patients who receive dialysis treatment have a lower risk of infection.

A. True

B. False


8. A fellow health care professional has questions regarding C. auris. Which of the following informational points of interest should be communicated to the health care professional?

A. C. auris is a multidrug-resistant bacteria that can cause invasive infection and death.

B. C. auris is a multidrug-resistant yeast that can cause invasive infection and death.

C. C. auris does not easily spread between hospitalized patients and nursing home residents.

D. C. auris easily spreads between hospitalized patients but not nursing home residents.


Challenges and Opportunities in Detection and Treatment for Antibiotic-Resistant Infections

9. Which of the following statements is most accurate?

A. Macrolides and tetracyclines stop DNA replication.

B. Tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones stop DNA replication.

C. Macrolides and tetracyclines stop protein synthesis.

D. Fluoroquinolones stop protein synthesis.


10. Which of the following statements regarding ceftriaxone is most accurate?

A. Ceftriaxone is a macrolide.

B. Ceftriaxone is administered orally.

C. Ceftriaxone is often used to treat respiratory infections.

D. Ceftriaxone often causes liver toxicity and kidney toxicity.


11. Which of the following antibiotics may be administered intramuscularly?

A. Daptomycin

B. Nitrofurantoin

C. Vancomycin

D. Clindamycin


12. A 48 year-old male patient has questions regarding levofloxacin. Which of the following educational points should be expressed to the patient?

A. Levofloxacin is a cephalosporin.

B. Levofloxacin may be administered intramuscularly.

C. Levofloxacin is not intended for home use.

D. Levofloxacin may lead to altered sugar levels.


13. Which of the following statements regarding meropenem is most accurate?

A. Meropenem is a fluoroquinolone.

B. Meropenem may be administered orally.

C. Meropenem may only be used to treat antibiotic-resistant Gram-positive infections.

D. Meropenem may lead to seizures.


14. Colonization screening may be used to identify if a germ has or is being spread, even if no infections have occurred.

A. True

B. False


15. A fellow health care professional has questions regarding antibodies and antibody therapy. Which of the following informational points of interest should be communicated to the health care professional?

A. Antibodies and vaccines are the same.

B. Antibodies stimulate antibody production within a few weeks.

C. Antibody therapy can provide an immediate level of immunity.

D. Health care professionals should not give antibody treatment to patients with recurrent C. difficile infections.


16. Which of the following statements is most accurate?

A. Bacteriophages are bacteria that infect and replicate within viruses.

B. Bacteriophages are viruses that infect and replicate within bacteria.

C. Bacteriophages are helpful bacteria that may assist in restoring a person’s microbiome.

D. Bacteriophages are harmful bacteria that may assist in restoring a person’s microbiome.


National Action to Combat Antibiotic Resistance and Pathogen Summaries

17. According to the text, which of the following strategies may help fill domestic gaps in the fight against antibiotic resistance?

A. Reduce the production of new antibiotics.

B. Reduce the production of new vaccines.

C. Decrease collaboration between public health and health care.

D. Increase collaboration between public health and health care to prevent the spread of germs and improve antibiotic use.


18. A fellow health care professional has questions regarding Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter. Which of the following informational points of interest should be communicated to the health care professional?

A. Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter causes pneumonia.

B. Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter do not typically cause urinary tract infections.

C. Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter, typically, only affects individuals under the age of 40.

D. Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter-related infections do not typically occur in health care settings.


19. Which of the following statements is most accurate?

A. Health care facility cleaning and disinfection is not an effective strategy to reduce C. difficile infections.

B. C. difficile infections are more common and tend to be more severe in older patients.

C. C. difficile does not usually occur in people who have taken antibiotics.

D. The common strain of C. difficile, referred to as ribotype 027, is not associated with the fluoroquinolones.


20. Patients who require devices (e.g., catheters) and patients taking long courses of some antibiotics are not at risk for Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae infections.

A. True

B. False


21. A 24 year-old female patient has questions regarding gonorrhea. Which of the following educational points should be expressed to the patient?

A. Gonorrhea does not spread easily.

B. Gonorrhea is not resistant to antibiotics.

C. Gonorrhea does not affect women.

D. Untreated gonorrhea can cause serious and permanent health problems in women and men, including ectopic pregnancy.


22. Which of the following statements regarding VRE is most accurate?

A. VRE infections do not typically happen in patients with health care exposure.

B. Risk factors for VRE infection include stays in long-term care hospitals or intensive care units.

C. VRE infections do not typically affect patients that have undergone an organ transplant.

D. Hand hygiene is not an effective strategy to reduce VREinfections.


23. P. aeruginosa infections usually occur in people in the hospital or with weakened immune systems.

A. True

B. False


24. A fellow health care professional has questions regarding Salmonella. Which of the following informational points of interest should be communicated to the health care professional?

A. People cannot get Salmonella from eating contaminated food products.

B. Salmonella typically only affects individuals under the age of 65.

C. Antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin and azithromycin are sometimes needed to treat patients with severe Salmonella infections.

D. Some nontyphoidal Salmonella are becoming more susceptible to essential antibiotics.


25. A fellow health care professional has questions regarding Salmonella. Which of the following informational points of interest should be communicated to the health care professional?

A. People cannot get Salmonella from eating contaminated food products.

B. Salmonella typically only affects individuals under the age of 65.

C. Antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin and azithromycin are sometimes needed to treat patients with severe Salmonella infections.

D. Some nontyphoidal Salmonella are becoming more susceptible to essential antibiotics.


26. Which of the following statements is most accurate?

A. MRSA has become resistant to many first-line antibiotics.

B. MRSA infections are not preventable.

C. People who inject drugs are less likely to develop a serious (invasive) MRSA infection.

D. Individuals under the age of 65 are not susceptible to MRSA infections.


27. Which of the following statements regarding TB is most accurate?

A. TB spreads from person to person through the air.

B. TB cannot spread from person to person through the air.

C. In most cases, TB is not curable.

D. In most cases, TB is not curable because TB is resistant to all antibiotics.


28. A patient has questions regarding Group A Streptococcus (GAS). Which of the following educational points should be expressed to the patient?

A. GAS is the most common cause of fungal infections.

B. GAS is the most common bacterial cause of sore throats, often referred to as strep throat.

C. GAS is a sexually transmitted virus.

D. GAS is a bacteria that is typically only transmitted via infected food.


29. Mothers can pass Group B Streptococcus (GBS) to their infants during labor.

A. True

B. False


30. A fellow health care professional has questions regarding Aspergillus fumigatus. Which of the following informational points of interest should be communicated to the health care professional?

A. Aspergillus fumigatus is a sexually transmitted bacteria.

B. Aspergillus fumigatus is a bacteria that may lead to a respiratory illness commonly known as whooping cough.

C. Aspergillus fumigatus is a type of virus that may lead to urethritis in men.

D. Aspergillus fumigatus is a fungus that can cause life-threatening infections in people with weakened immune systems.


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