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1. Of the 2.3 million adults who are behind bars in America, __________ are substance involved and almost ___________ meet medical criteria for an alcohol or other drug use disorder.
A. 1.9 million; 64.5 percent
B. 1.7 million; 60.2 percent
C. 1.5 million; 57.7 percent
D. 1.3 million; 54.2 percent
2. While alcohol is implicated in the incarceration of over 70.4 percent of all inmates in America, illicit drugs are implicated in 52.6 percent.
3. Blacks and Hispanics are overrepresented in America’s prisons and jails. However, these inmates report lower rates of drug use in the month prior to their arrest and have lower rates of substance use disorders than white inmates.
4. Which of the following is NOT one of the essential elements of treatment?
A. Screening to determine the extent and nature of risky substance use or addiction
B. Comprehensive assessment of the nature and extent of the criminal justice patient’s substance-related problem and treatment needs
C. Individualized treatment plans that are at least 90 days in duration
D. Aftercare including community supervision, case management and integrated services
5. In correctional facilities where therapeutic community treatment occurs to treat offenders with substance use disorders, correctional staff report:
A. A less stressful job environment
B. A higher level of job satisfaction and lower rates of staff sick leave
C. Less inmate-on-inmate and inmate-on-staff assault and less disruptive behavior among inmates.
D. All of the above
6. The largest group of substance-involved inmates includes those who have used illicit drugs regularly, and 77.5 percent of violent crime offenders were substance involved.
7. 17.4 percent of federal, state and local inmates were incarcerated for property crimes, and 69.4 percent were substance-involved.
8. Non-substance involved inmates include those who:
A. Have not been convicted of an alcohol or drug law violation and haven't used drugs regularly
B. Were not under the influence of alcohol or other drugs at the time of their crime
C. Did not commit their crime to get money for drugs, have no history of alcohol treatment, and no substance use disorder
D. All of the above
9. In the 1990s and into the 2000s, total arrests were down. During this same period, arrests for drug law violations:
A. Decreased somewhat
B. Greatly decreased
C. Increased somewhat
D. Greatly increased
10. Of those arrested for federal drug law violations in 2004, cocaine was the primary drug involved
11. While marijuana is the drug involved in the largest share of state and local arrests or drug law violations (44.3 percent), ___________ is/are second.
A. Synthetic drugs
12. Which of the following is NOT one of the factors that is related to juvenile delinquency and recidivism?
A. Being arrested at an early age
B. Being convicted as a juvenile or youthful delinquent
C. Beginning alcohol or other drug use at an early age
D. Growing up withsubstance abusing caretakers
13. Prison and jail inmates are five times likelier than individuals in the general population to have a substance use disorder.
14. Compared with inmates who are not substance involved, substance-involved inmates are:
A. Three times likelier to receive income through illegal activity
B. Almost twice as likely to have had at least one parent abuse alcohol or other drugs
C. 30.5percent likelier to have some family criminal history
D. 20.6percent less likely to have completed at least high school
15. The Los Angeles County Jail, on any given day, holds more people with mental illness than any state hospital or mental health institution in the United States.
16. Black inmates whose controlling offenses are drug charges are more likely to be non-substance using offenders than are whites whose controlling offenses are drug charges.
17. The populations of prison inmates who are likelier to have substance use and mental health disorders are:
A. Blacks and Hispanics
B. Whites and blacks
C. Native Americans and whites
D. Hispanics and Native Americans
18. Compared with male inmates, female inmates are more than ______ times likelier to have been sexually abused before incarceration.
19. State and local juvenile and youthful offenders are somewhat less likely to have co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders than are non-youthful offenders.
20. Children of parents with substance use disorders may have experienced increased neglect and abuse in their homes, in turn increasing their chances of alcohol and other drug use.
21. The percentage of inmates participating in education and job training services __________ between 1996 and 2006.
C. Stayed about the same
D. None of the above
22. Which of the following are NOT evidence-based practices for addiction-related services?
A. Addressing co-occurring disorders and involvement of family in treatment
B. Continuing care or aftercare and use of drug testing in treatment
C. Standardized substance abuse assessment and treatment matching
D. Use of groups and self-help concepts in treatment
23. In 2000, only 200 of the 1,208 federal and state confinement facilities (16.6 percent) reported offering specialized alcohol and/or drug treatment.
24. A considerable body of evidence demonstrates the importance of access to educational opportunities and _______________________ to help reduce recidivism.
A. Religious or spiritually-based programs
B. Job training skills
C. Aftercare and social skills training
D. None of the above
25. Individualized treatment plans for inmates should include:
A. Appropriate behavioral and pharmacological therapies
B. Treatment for co-occurring health and mental health conditions
C. Education/training, housing, social and family support needs
D. All of the above
26. Aftercare programs for released offenders should include each of the following EXCEPT:
A. Community supervision
B. Integrated services
C. Social and family supports
D. Case management
27. One study found that incarcerated offenders released from prisons are nearly ____ times likelier to die during their first two weeks out of prison than individuals in the general population.
28. Which of the following accurately describes rates of Substance Abuse Disorders (SUDs) among conditionally released offenders?
A. Blacks have SUD rates of 45.3%
B. Whites have SUD rates of 31.6%
C. Hispanics have SUD rates of29.4%
D. Native Americans have SUD rates of 15.2%
29. Case management evaluation should assess the offender’s treatment needs, treatment readiness, treatment engagement and:
A. Treatment goals
B. Treatment progress
C. Treatment support
D. All of the above
30. Research has found that integrating in-prison treatment with aftercare, including work release and parole supervision, results in the best social adjustment and the lowest recidivism outcomes among ex-offenders.
31. To address the reentry needs and reduce recidivism among convicted criminal offenders, Congress enacted the ___________________ in 2008.
A. Second Chance Act
B. Sheridan DrugRecovery Act
C. The Gateway Recidivism Act
D. The Safer Prison Act
32. n order to meet the health needs of substance-involved offenders and reduce crime and its costs to society, the criminal justice system must address risky substance use as a preventable health problem and addictive disorders as ________________.
A. Mental health problems
B. Social problems
C. Medical problems
D. None of the above
33. Mandatory sentences, such as the “three strikes” laws, not only result in prison overcrowding, but they also unfairly target disadvantaged minority groups.
34. In the mid-1990s, the Supreme Court ruled that the earning of special privileges by inmates could be contingent upon participation in religious or spiritually-based mutual support programs such as Alcoholics Anonymous or Narcotics Anonymous.
35. A key first step in overcoming the barriers to treatment in the justice system is to:
A. Increase training of police, prosecutors, judges and other criminal justice personnel
B. Increse early detection
C. Increase treatment and aftercare options
D. Increase alternative programs
36. Which of the following is a true statement about the drug court treatment movement?
A. This movement, which began in 1992, demonstrated a change in American drug policy
B. As of 2009, there were more than 3,000 drug courts serving about 60% of the counties in the United States
C. Reduced criminal justice and victimization costs have resulted in positive net benefits, ranging from $1,000 to $15,000 per participant
D. Both A and B above
37. One promising practice is California’s New Start prison program which recognizes that key to increasing public safety is:
A. Training of parolees
B. Employment of parolees
C. Education of parolees
D. Community support of parolees
38. In 2005, federal, state and local governments spent $64 billion in court, probation, parole and incarceration costs of substance-involved offenders, but only only $842 million on prevention and treatment for substance-involved offenders.
39. Since The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse (CASA) called for reform in 1998, costs to government for failure to take action to address substance use problems in the criminal justice population have skyrocketed.
40. CASA recommends that the criminal justice system use appropriately trained health officials to:
A. Screen every arrestee for risky substance use and addictive disorders, including tobacco, alcohol, illicit and controlled prescription drugs
B. Ensure thatappropriate addiction treatment be provided in all criminal justice settings
C. Require the accreditation of prison- and jail-based treatment programs and providers through professional organizations
D. Educate public officials about the nature of addiction, the effectiveness of treatment, the social and economic benefits of providing treatment to offenders with substance use disorders
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